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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

High Temperature Strength and Hot Working Technology for As-Cast Mg–1Zn–1Ca (ZX11) Alloy

1
Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong
2
Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046, India
3
Independent Researcher, Bengaluru 560024, India
4
Magnesium Innovation Centre, Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, Geesthacht 21502, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2017, 7(10), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/met7100405
Received: 18 August 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 20 September 2017 / Published: 1 October 2017
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Abstract

Cast Mg–1Zn–1Ca alloy (ZX11) has been tested to evaluate its compressive strength between 25 °C and 250 °C, and workability in the range of 260–500 °C. The ultimate compressive strength of this alloy is about 30% higher than that of creep-resistant alloy Mg–3Sn–2Ca (TX32) between 25 °C and 200 °C, and exhibits a plateau between 100 °C and 175 °C, similar to TX32. This is attributed to Mg2Ca particles present at grain boundaries that reduce their sliding. The processing map, developed between 260 and 420 °C in the strain rate limits of 0.0003 s−1 to 1 s−1, exhibited two domains in the ranges: (1) 280–330 °C and 0.0003–0.01 s−1 and (2) 330–400 °C and 0.0003–0.1 s−1. In these domains, dynamic recrystallization occurs, with basal slip dominating in the first domain and prismatic slip in the second, while the recovery mechanism being climb of edge dislocations in both. The activation energy estimated using standard kinetic rate equation is 191 kJ/mol, which is higher than the value for lattice self-diffusion in magnesium indicating that a large back stress is created by the presence of Ca2Mg6Zn3 intermetallic particles in the matrix. It is recommended that the alloy be best processed at 380 °C and 0.1 s−1 at which prismatic slip is favored due to Zn addition. At higher strain rates, the alloy exhibits flow instability and adiabatic shear band formation at <340 °C while flow localization and cracking at grain boundaries occurs at temperatures >400 °C. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mg–Zn–Ca alloy; biomaterial; compressive strength; hot workability; processing map; microstructure; kinetic analysis; hot forging; finite element simulation Mg–Zn–Ca alloy; biomaterial; compressive strength; hot workability; processing map; microstructure; kinetic analysis; hot forging; finite element simulation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Rao, K.P.; Suresh, K.; Prasad, Y.V.R.K.; Dharmendra, C.; Hort, N.; Dieringa, H. High Temperature Strength and Hot Working Technology for As-Cast Mg–1Zn–1Ca (ZX11) Alloy. Metals 2017, 7, 405.

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