Numerical Simulation and Experimental Verification of Nickel-Based Superalloy Disc-Shaped Parts Formed by Semi-Solid Thixoforming
2. Pretreatment of Numerical Simulation of Semi-Solid Thixoforming
- Transfer process: This process simulated the transfer of the billet from the heating furnace to the mold cavity after heating. In the actual experiment, there was a transfer process after the billet was heated. During the transfer process, the billet transferred heat to air. Therefore, this process should not be ignored. In this work, the transfer time was set to 2 s, the air temperature was 25 °C, and the heat transfer coefficient was 0.02 kW/(m2·K).
- Contact process: This step simulated the process that the billet stayed in the die cavity before being extruded. In this process, the billet directly contacted the upper surface of the ejector rod for heat transfer. The contact time was set to 2 s, and the heat transfer coefficient was 1 kW/(m2·K).
- Thixoforming process: The billet was compressed under the pressure of the top die and then filled the entire mold cavity. In this step, the friction coefficient between the die and billet was set to 0.3, the temperature of the top die was 400 °C, the temperature of the bottom die, the ejector rod temperature was 450 °C, and the heat transfer coefficient was 11 kW/(m2·K).
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. The Process of Heat Transfer between the Billet and Air
3.2. The Process of Heat Transfer between the Billet and the Ejector Rod
3.3. Numerical Simulation of the Semi-Solid Thixoforming Process
3.3.1. The Effect of Billet Placement Mode on the Results of Numerical Simulation of Thixoforming
3.3.2. The Effect of Billet Temperature on the Results of Numerical Simulation of Thixoforming
3.3.3. The Effect of Extrusion Velocity on the Results of Numerical Simulation of Thixoforming
3.4. Experimental Verification of the Semi-Solid Thixoforming
- The billet placement mode has a great influence on the numerical simulation results of thixoforming. Compared with the billet placed vertically, when the billet was placed horizontally, the temperature of the dies after forming was lower, the thermal damage to the dies was reduced, and the possibility of defect of the formed parts was lower. Therefore, the horizontal placement of the billet was more conducive to thixoforming.
- The higher the billet temperature was, the better the alloy-filling was. The faster the extrusion velocity was, the better the thixoforming effect was. However, high billet temperature affected the strength and stiffness of the die, and the high extrusion velocity easily led to the separation of solid and liquid phases of semi-solid billets. Therefore, it is necessary to comprehensively consider each parameter and make a reasonable choice in the actual experiment.
- The thixoforming experimental results show that when the billet temperature was lower than 1350 °C, the outer edge of the formed part was not filled completely. When the billet temperature was higher than 1360 °C, the formed parts were completely filled and had good surface qualities. The liquid fraction in the microstructure of formed parts increased with the increase of heating temperature. The liquid fraction at the edge of the formed part was higher than that in the center.
- The results of the numerical simulation optimized the process parameters for the thixoforming experiment, and the experimental results verified the accuracy of the numerical simulation.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Billet Placement Mode|
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Xiao, G.; Jiang, J.; Wang, Y. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Verification of Nickel-Based Superalloy Disc-Shaped Parts Formed by Semi-Solid Thixoforming. Metals 2023, 13, 1613. https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091613
Xiao G, Jiang J, Wang Y. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Verification of Nickel-Based Superalloy Disc-Shaped Parts Formed by Semi-Solid Thixoforming. Metals. 2023; 13(9):1613. https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091613Chicago/Turabian Style
Xiao, Guanfei, Jufu Jiang, and Ying Wang. 2023. "Numerical Simulation and Experimental Verification of Nickel-Based Superalloy Disc-Shaped Parts Formed by Semi-Solid Thixoforming" Metals 13, no. 9: 1613. https://doi.org/10.3390/met13091613