It is worth it to explore the extraction performance for vanadium by the imidazole ionic liquids. The extraction of vanadium (V) was studied using [Omim]Cl, [Omim]Br, and [Omim][BF4
] as extractants. The effects of various diluents, equilibrium time, extraction temperature, and anion species were investigated. The structure-activity relationship of vanadium and ILs was discussed by calculating the lattice energy of ILs based on the Glasser theory and the volume of anions. The results show that n-pentanol is the optimum diluent. Under the extraction conditions of an equilibrium time of 60 s and extraction temperature of 25 °C, the extraction rates of V (V) by [Omim]Cl, [Omim]Br, and [Omim][BF4
] reached 97.93%, 96.59%, and 87.01%, respectively. Furthermore, based on the Glasser theory, the lattice energy of ionic liquids decreased in the order [Omim]Cl > [Omim]Br > [Omim]BF4
. The volume of the anions increased in the order Cl−
. The extraction rate of V (V) depended on the size of the anions and the strength of the interaction between the anion and imidazolium cation. The results of counterevidence experiments verified the larger the anion volume, the easier it is to combine with cation in the organic phase, and the lattice energy of extracted compound is lower. The statistical analysis showed that the effect of the equilibrium time and temperature were not significant in the model, and the anions species showed a significant effect on the extraction efficiency of V (V).
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