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Review

E-Waste Recycling and Resource Recovery: A Review on Technologies, Barriers and Enablers with a Focus on Oceania

1
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Land and Water, 147 Underwood Avenue, Floreat, WA 6014, Australia
2
Algae R & D Centre, Environmental and Conservation Sciences, College of Science, Health, Engineering and Education, Murdoch University, 90 South Street, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia
3
Harry Butler Institute (Centre for Water, Energy and Waste), College of Science, Health, Engineering and Education, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia
4
School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Fernando Castro and Jean François Blais
Metals 2021, 11(8), 1313; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11081313
Received: 5 July 2021 / Revised: 6 August 2021 / Accepted: 16 August 2021 / Published: 19 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing and Characterization of Metal Containing Wastes)
Electronic e-waste (e-waste) is a growing problem worldwide. In 2019, total global production reached 53.6 million tons, and is estimated to increase to 74.7 million tons by 2030. This rapid increase is largely fuelled by higher consumption rates of electrical and electronic goods, shorter life cycles and fewer repair options. E-waste is classed as a hazardous substance, and if not collected and recycled properly, can have adverse environmental impacts. The recoverable material in e-waste represents significant economic value, with the total value of e-waste generated in 2019 estimated to be US $57 billion. Despite the inherent value of this waste, only 17.4% of e-waste was recycled globally in 2019, which highlights the need to establish proper recycling processes at a regional level. This review provides an overview of global e-waste production and current technologies for recycling e-waste and recovery of valuable material such as glass, plastic and metals. The paper also discusses the barriers and enablers influencing e-waste recycling with a specific focus on Oceania. View Full-Text
Keywords: e-waste; resource recovery; pyrometallurgy; hydrometallurgy; biohydrometallurgy; Oceania; metals; printed circuit boards; economics e-waste; resource recovery; pyrometallurgy; hydrometallurgy; biohydrometallurgy; Oceania; metals; printed circuit boards; economics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Van Yken, J.; Boxall, N.J.; Cheng, K.Y.; Nikoloski, A.N.; Moheimani, N.R.; Kaksonen, A.H. E-Waste Recycling and Resource Recovery: A Review on Technologies, Barriers and Enablers with a Focus on Oceania. Metals 2021, 11, 1313. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11081313

AMA Style

Van Yken J, Boxall NJ, Cheng KY, Nikoloski AN, Moheimani NR, Kaksonen AH. E-Waste Recycling and Resource Recovery: A Review on Technologies, Barriers and Enablers with a Focus on Oceania. Metals. 2021; 11(8):1313. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11081313

Chicago/Turabian Style

Van Yken, Jonovan, Naomi J. Boxall, Ka Yu Cheng, Aleksandar N. Nikoloski, Navid R. Moheimani, and Anna H. Kaksonen. 2021. "E-Waste Recycling and Resource Recovery: A Review on Technologies, Barriers and Enablers with a Focus on Oceania" Metals 11, no. 8: 1313. https://doi.org/10.3390/met11081313

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