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Sports, Volume 7, Issue 12 (December 2019) – 11 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Running is one of the most popular forms of exercise worldwide. A common location of pain among [...] Read more.
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Open AccessCommentary
A Warning against the Negligent Use of Cannabidiol in Professional and Amateur Athletes
Sports 2019, 7(12), 251; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7120251 - 14 Dec 2019
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Abstract
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid, widely marketed to athletes for claimed effects such as decreased anxiety, fear memory extinction, anti-inflammatory properties, relief of pain and for post-exercise recovery. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has excluded CBD from its list of prohibited substances. [...] Read more.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid, widely marketed to athletes for claimed effects such as decreased anxiety, fear memory extinction, anti-inflammatory properties, relief of pain and for post-exercise recovery. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has excluded CBD from its list of prohibited substances. Nevertheless, caution is currently advised for athletes intending to use the compound—except CBD, all other cannabinoids are still on the prohibited list. CBD products, specifically non-medicinal, so-called full-spectrum cannabis extracts, may contain significant levels of these substances, but also contaminations of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (>2.5 mg/day in >30% of products on the German market) potentially leading to positive doping tests. Labelled claims about CBD content and absence of THC are often false and misleading. Contaminations with the psychoactive THC can result in adverse effects on cognition and, in general, the safety profile of CBD with respect to its toxicity is a controversial topic of discussion. For these reasons, we would currently advise against the use of over-the-counter CBD products, especially those from dubious internet sources without quality control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Intervention in Exercise)
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Open AccessErratum
Erratum: Bujnovsky, D., et al. Physical Fitness Characteristics of High-level Youth Football Players: Influence of Playing Position. Sports 2019, 7, 46
Sports 2019, 7(12), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7120250 - 11 Dec 2019
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Abstract
The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Training Process in Soccer Players)
Open AccessArticle
Exploring Cognitive Dissonance on a Ski Mountaineering Traverse: A Personal Narrative of an Expedition to ISHINCA (5530 m) in PERU
Sports 2019, 7(12), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7120249 - 11 Dec 2019
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Abstract
Through a personal narrative account, this paper explores the nature of the author’s cognitive dissonance experienced during a traverse of a high-altitude ski mountaineering objective (Nevado Ishinca 5530 m) in Peru’s Cordillera Blanca. The author experienced psychological discomfort in the ascent and a [...] Read more.
Through a personal narrative account, this paper explores the nature of the author’s cognitive dissonance experienced during a traverse of a high-altitude ski mountaineering objective (Nevado Ishinca 5530 m) in Peru’s Cordillera Blanca. The author experienced psychological discomfort in the ascent and a role of self in determining a continued commitment with the ski mountaineering challenge. Distraction, trivialization, act rationalization and finally attitude change were all used in attempt to reduce negative levels of cognitive dissonance. The lack of consonant cognitions to support abandoning the climb, the notion of free choice, the role of self-concept and self-esteem values motivated continued commitment until the negative levels of arousal subsided. Through a challenging mountaineering experience, I developed a greater self-awareness of the role of commitment to an objective which could be applied to other life events and experiences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Wellbeing in an Outdoor and Adventure Sports Context)
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Open AccessArticle
Reliability and Structural Validity of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 in Croatian Preschool Children
Sports 2019, 7(12), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7120248 - 11 Dec 2019
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Abstract
Monitoring and assessment of the development of motor skills is an important goal for practitioners in many disciplines as well as researchers interested in motor development. A well-established tool for such purpose is the Movement Assessment Battery for Children Second Edition (MABC-2) which [...] Read more.
Monitoring and assessment of the development of motor skills is an important goal for practitioners in many disciplines as well as researchers interested in motor development. A well-established tool for such purpose is the Movement Assessment Battery for Children Second Edition (MABC-2) which covers three age ranges and contains eight motor items in each range related to the manual dexterity, aiming and catching, and balance. The main aim of the study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the MABC-2 age band one in a sample of Croatian preschool children. Structural validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Measures of relative and absolute reliability were established by computing the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), standard error of the measurement (SEM), and smallest detectable change (SDC). About 17% of the children of the total sample fall into the categories of motor impairment and risk for impairment, respectively, while 83% were found to be in the category of normally developing children. Intraclass correlation coefficient for the total standard score was 0.79 while individual items, all except one, ranged from 0.70 to 0.83. Drawing trail, but also throwing beanbag and one-leg balance items presented large SEM and SDC values. CFA initially yielded a model with questionable fit to the data. After re-specification, excellent model fit was attained confirming the proposed three-factor model. Satorra–Bentler χ2(26) reached 38.56 (p = 0.054), root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) was 0.028, non-normed fit index (NNFI) was 0.98, adjusted goodness of fit (AGFI) was 0.97, and standardized root mean residual (SRMR) was 0.030. All the variables loaded significantly, and only two significant standardized residuals have been found. Correlations between the factors were weak, supporting discriminant validity of the test. We found MABC-2 to be an appropriate instrument to assess the development of motor competences of preschool children. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Attitudes and Beliefs towards Sport Specialization, College Scholarships, and Financial Investment among High School Baseball Parents
Sports 2019, 7(12), 247; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7120247 - 10 Dec 2019
Viewed by 287
Abstract
Adolescent athletes are increasingly encouraged to specialize in a single sport year-round in an effort to receive a college scholarship. For collegiate baseball, only 11.7 scholarships are available for a 35-player team. The beliefs of the parents of baseball athletes towards sport specialization [...] Read more.
Adolescent athletes are increasingly encouraged to specialize in a single sport year-round in an effort to receive a college scholarship. For collegiate baseball, only 11.7 scholarships are available for a 35-player team. The beliefs of the parents of baseball athletes towards sport specialization are unknown, along with whether they have an accurate understanding of college baseball scholarship availability. The parents of high school baseball athletes were recruited to complete an anonymous questionnaire that consisted of (1) parent and child demographics, (2) child baseball participation information, and (3) parent attitudes and beliefs regarding sport specialization and college baseball scholarships. One hundred and fifty-five parents participated in the questionnaire (female: 52.9%, age: 49.4 ± 5.5 years old). The parents spent a median of 3000 USD [Interquartile Range (IQR): 1500–6000] on their child’s baseball participation. Most parents believed that specialization increased their child’s chances of getting better at baseball (N = 121, 79.6%). The parents underestimated the number of college baseball scholarships available per team (median [IQR]: 5 [0–5]), but 55 parents (35.9%) believed it was likely that their child would receive a college baseball scholarship. Despite having a realistic understanding of the limited college scholarships available, the parents were optimistic that their child would receive a baseball scholarship. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Acute Effect of Quadriceps Myofascial Tissue Rolling Using A Mechanical Self-Myofascial Release Roller-Massager on Performance and Recovery in Young Elite Speed Skaters
Sports 2019, 7(12), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7120246 - 07 Dec 2019
Viewed by 328
Abstract
Objectives: The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of myofascial tissue rolling on endurance performance and recovery using a novel designed mechanical self-induced multi-bar roller-massager. Methods: a randomized crossover, repeated measure design was used. Eight national levelled, [...] Read more.
Objectives: The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of myofascial tissue rolling on endurance performance and recovery using a novel designed mechanical self-induced multi-bar roller-massager. Methods: a randomized crossover, repeated measure design was used. Eight national levelled, junior and neo-senior, speed skaters underwent a 10 min myofascial quadriceps rolling pre- and fifteen minutes post- a stepwise incremental cycling-test to exhaustion followed by a Wingate performance-test. The myofascial quadriceps rolling was used in one out of two laboratory testing-days. Time to exhaustion, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), blood lactate concentration during 30 min of recovery, and peak- and mean- power during the consecutive Wingate test were recorded. Results: Myofascial quadriceps rolling using roller-massager resulted in higher blood lactate concentration at exhaustion and a larger blood lactate clearance after 10 min to post exhaustion test (both p < 0.05), a tendency for a positive effect on Wingate peak-power (p = 0.084; d = 0.71), whereas no marked differences were observed on VO2peak, time to exhaustion and Wingate mean-power. Conclusion: Despite indications for potential benefits of the quadriceps myofascial tissue release using the mechanical self-induced multi-bar roller-massager on blood lactate concentration and Wingate peak-power, the myofascial tissue release gave no marked performance improvements nor indications of negative effects. Future studies could examine the long-term effects of myofascial tissue release on performance and recovery. Furthermore, integrating a measure of the participants’ subjective experience pre- and post the myofascial tissue release would be of great interest. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Symptomatic Achilles Tendons are Thicker than Asymptomatic Tendons on Ultrasound Examination in Recreational Long-Distance Runners
Sports 2019, 7(12), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7120245 - 05 Dec 2019
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Abstract
There is a need for clinical indicators that can be used to guide the treatment of Achilles tendon complaints in recreational runners. Diagnostic ultrasound has recently been introduced for clinical decision support in tendon pain management. The aim of this study was to [...] Read more.
There is a need for clinical indicators that can be used to guide the treatment of Achilles tendon complaints in recreational runners. Diagnostic ultrasound has recently been introduced for clinical decision support in tendon pain management. The aim of this study was to determine whether tendon thickness and morphological changes in the Achilles tendon detected in ultrasound examinations are associated with local symptoms in middle-age recreational long-distance runners. Forty-two Achilles tendons (21 middle-aged runners) were investigated by ultrasound examination measuring tendon thickness and a morphology score indicating tendinosis. The Generalized Estimating Equations method was applied in multiple models of factors associated with reporting a symptomatic tendon. Eleven symptomatic and 31 asymptomatic Achilles tendons were recorded. In the multiple model that used tendon thickness measured 30 mm proximal to the distal insertion, an association was found between thickness and reporting a symptomatic tendon (p < 0.001; OR 12.9; 95% CI 3.1 to 53.2). A qualitative morphology score was not found to be significantly associated with reporting a symptomatic tendon (p = 0.10). We conclude that symptomatic Achilles tendons were thicker than asymptomatic tendons on ultrasound examination among recreational long-distance runners and that the importance of parallel morphological findings need to be further investigated in prospective studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Coach–Athlete Relationship in Strength and Conditioning: High Performance Athletes’ Perceptions
Sports 2019, 7(12), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7120244 - 04 Dec 2019
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Abstract
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate high performance athlete perceptions of strength and conditioning coaches, specifically, (1) their character traits, (2) the effective behaviours that display these traits, and (3) how these relationships were fostered. Using the 3+1 C’s model [...] Read more.
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate high performance athlete perceptions of strength and conditioning coaches, specifically, (1) their character traits, (2) the effective behaviours that display these traits, and (3) how these relationships were fostered. Using the 3+1 C’s model of coach–athlete relationships as a framework (Jowett, 2007), 12 semi-structured interviews were conducted with high performance athletes (six female; six male) representing a variety of sports (i.e., freestyle wrestling, triathlon, field hockey, cycling, rowing, rugby union, netball, table tennis, and ice hockey). Participants ranged in age from 18 to 53 years (M = 29, SD = 9). Interviews took between 19–47 min and were transcribed verbatim. The transcripts equated to a total of 188 pages of data that were analyzed, coded, and further grouped into higher-order themes and general dimensions. The findings revealed 14 higher-order themes categorized under the 3+1 C’s general dimensions of closeness, commitment, complementarity, and co-orientation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
How Does Biological Maturation and Training Experience Impact the Physical and Technical Performance of 11–14-Year-Old Male Basketball Players?
Sports 2019, 7(12), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7120243 - 03 Dec 2019
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Abstract
This study (1) investigated the effects of age, maturity status, anthropometrics, and years of training on 11–14-year-old male basketball players’ physical performance and technical skills development, and (2) estimated the contribution of maturity status and training years on players’ physical and technical performances. [...] Read more.
This study (1) investigated the effects of age, maturity status, anthropometrics, and years of training on 11–14-year-old male basketball players’ physical performance and technical skills development, and (2) estimated the contribution of maturity status and training years on players’ physical and technical performances. The sample consisted of 150 participants, average age 13.3 ± 0.7 years, grouped by early, average, and late maturation. Biological maturation, anthropometry, and training data were collected using standard procedures. Measures of physical performance assessed included: aerobic fitness, abdominal muscular strength and endurance, static strength, lower body explosive power, upper body explosive power, speed, and agility and body control. Basketball-specific technical skills were also recorded. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to compare group differences. Results indicated that early maturers were taller, heavier, and had greater strength, power, speed, and agility (p < 0.05). When controlling for age, height, and body mass, early maturers remained stronger, quicker, and more agile (p < 0.05). They were also more skillful in the speed shot shooting test (p < 0.05). Apart from tests of aerobic fitness, abdominal muscular strength and endurance, and lower body explosive power, maturity status was the primary contributor to the variance in the physical performance tests. Years of training was the primary contributor to the variance in the technical skills tests. Whilst physical performance was dependent on maturity status, technical skills were influenced by years of training. Since both biological maturation and years of training play an important role in basketball performance, we recommend that coaches consider the effects of these two confounders when recruiting and selecting youth basketballers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Short-Term Seasonal Development of Anthropometry, Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Sport-Specific Performance in Young Olympic Weightlifters
Sports 2019, 7(12), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7120242 - 30 Nov 2019
Viewed by 490
Abstract
The aim of this study is to monitor short-term seasonal development of young Olympic weightlifters’ anthropometry, body composition, physical fitness, and sport-specific performance. Fifteen male weightlifters aged 13.2 ± 1.3 years participated in this study. Tests for the assessment of anthropometry (e.g., body-height, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to monitor short-term seasonal development of young Olympic weightlifters’ anthropometry, body composition, physical fitness, and sport-specific performance. Fifteen male weightlifters aged 13.2 ± 1.3 years participated in this study. Tests for the assessment of anthropometry (e.g., body-height, body-mass), body-composition (e.g., lean-body-mass, relative fat-mass), muscle strength (grip-strength), jump performance (drop-jump (DJ) height, countermovement-jump (CMJ) height, DJ contact time, DJ reactive-strength-index (RSI)), dynamic balance (Y-balance-test), and sport-specific performance (i.e., snatch and clean-and-jerk) were conducted at different time-points (i.e., T1 (baseline), T2 (9 weeks), T3 (20 weeks)). Strength tests (i.e., grip strength, clean-and-jerk and snatch) and training volume were normalized to body mass. Results showed small-to-large increases in body-height, body-mass, lean-body-mass, and lower-limbs lean-mass from T1-to-T2 and T2-to-T3 (∆0.7–6.7%; 0.1 ≤ d ≤ 1.2). For fat-mass, a significant small-sized decrease was found from T1-to-T2 (∆13.1%; d = 0.4) and a significant increase from T2-to-T3 (∆9.1%; d = 0.3). A significant main effect of time was observed for DJ contact time (d = 1.3) with a trend toward a significant decrease from T1-to-T2 (∆–15.3%; d = 0.66; p = 0.06). For RSI, significant small increases from T1-to-T2 (∆9.9%, d = 0.5) were noted. Additionally, a significant main effect of time was found for snatch (d = 2.7) and clean-and-jerk (d = 3.1) with significant small-to-moderate increases for both tests from T1-to-T2 and T2-to-T3 (∆4.6–11.3%, d = 0.33 to 0.64). The other tests did not change significantly over time (0.1 ≤ d ≤ 0.8). Results showed significantly higher training volume for sport-specific training during the second period compared with the first period (d = 2.2). Five months of Olympic weightlifting contributed to significant changes in anthropometry, body-composition, and sport-specific performance. However, hardly any significant gains were observed for measures of physical fitness. Coaches are advised to design training programs that target a variety of fitness components to lay an appropriate foundation for later performance as an elite athlete. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Prevalence of Legal Performance-Enhancing Substance Use and Potential Cognitive and or Physical Doping in German Recreational Triathletes, Assessed via the Randomised Response Technique
Sports 2019, 7(12), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7120241 - 26 Nov 2019
Viewed by 366
Abstract
This study investigated the use of performance-enhancing substances in recreational triathletes who were competing in German races at distances ranging from super-sprint to long-distance, as per the International Triathlon Union. The use of legal drugs and over-the-counter supplements over the previous year, painkillers [...] Read more.
This study investigated the use of performance-enhancing substances in recreational triathletes who were competing in German races at distances ranging from super-sprint to long-distance, as per the International Triathlon Union. The use of legal drugs and over-the-counter supplements over the previous year, painkillers over the previous 3 months, and the potential three-month prevalence of physical doping and or cognitive doping in this group were assessed via an anonymous questionnaire. The Randomised Response Technique (RRT) was implemented for sensitive questions regarding “prescription drugs […] for the purpose of performance enhancement […] only available at a pharmacy or on the black market”. The survey did not directly state the word “doping,” but included examples of substances that could later be classed as physical and or cognitive doping. The subjects were not required to detail what they were taking. Overall, 1953 completed questionnaires were received from 3134 registered starters at six regional events—themselves involving 17 separate races—in 2017. Of the respondents, 31.8% and 11.3% admitted to the use of dietary supplements, and of painkillers during the previous three months, respectively. Potential physical doping and cognitive doping over the preceding year were reported by 7.0% (Confidence Interval CI: 4.2–9.8) and 9.4% (CI: 6.6–12.3) of triathletes. Gender, age, experience in endurance sports, and number of weekly triathlon training hours were linked to potential physical or cognitive doping. Given the potentially relevant side effects of painkiller use and physical and or cognitive doping, we recommend that educational and preventative measures for them be implemented within amateur triathlons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maximising Triathlon Health and Performance: the State of the Art)
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