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Article

Long-Range Effects of Wing Physical Damage and Distortion on Eyespot Color Patterns in the Hindwing of the Blue Pansy Butterfly Junonia orithya

The BCPH Unit of Molecular Physiology, Department of Chemistry, Biology and Marine Science, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan
Insects 2018, 9(4), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects9040195
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
Butterfly eyespot color patterns have been studied using several different approaches, including applications of physical damage to the forewing. Here, damage and distortion experiments were performed, focusing on the hindwing eyespots of the blue pansy butterfly Junonia orithya. Physical puncture damage with a needle at the center of the eyespot reduced the eyespot size. Damage at the eyespot outer rings not only deformed the entire eyespot, but also diminished the eyespot core disk size, despite the distance from the damage site to the core disk. When damage was inflicted near the eyespot, the eyespot was drawn toward the damage site. The induction of an ectopic eyespot-like structure and its fusion with the innate eyespots were observed when damage was inflicted in the background area. When a small stainless ball was placed in close proximity to the eyespot using the forewing-lift method, the eyespot deformed toward the ball. Taken together, physical damage and distortion elicited long-range inhibitory, drawing (attracting), and inducing effects, suggesting that the innate and induced morphogenic signals travel long distances and interact with each other. These results are consistent with the distortion hypothesis, positing that physical distortions of wing tissue contribute to color pattern determination in butterfly wings. View Full-Text
Keywords: butterfly wing; color pattern; damage; distortion; eyespot; hindwing; long-range signal; morphogenic signal butterfly wing; color pattern; damage; distortion; eyespot; hindwing; long-range signal; morphogenic signal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Otaki, J.M. Long-Range Effects of Wing Physical Damage and Distortion on Eyespot Color Patterns in the Hindwing of the Blue Pansy Butterfly Junonia orithya. Insects 2018, 9, 195. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects9040195

AMA Style

Otaki JM. Long-Range Effects of Wing Physical Damage and Distortion on Eyespot Color Patterns in the Hindwing of the Blue Pansy Butterfly Junonia orithya. Insects. 2018; 9(4):195. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects9040195

Chicago/Turabian Style

Otaki, Joji M. 2018. "Long-Range Effects of Wing Physical Damage and Distortion on Eyespot Color Patterns in the Hindwing of the Blue Pansy Butterfly Junonia orithya" Insects 9, no. 4: 195. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects9040195

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