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Open AccessArticle

Insecticide Resistance in Eggs and First Instars of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

1
Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, 1881 Natural Area Drive, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
2
Dodson Urban Pest Management Laboratory, Department of Entomology, Virginia Tech, 170 Drillfield Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Brian T. Forschler
Insects 2015, 6(1), 122-132; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects6010122
Received: 30 October 2014 / Accepted: 9 January 2015 / Published: 15 January 2015
Two strains of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., eggs and first instars collected from pyrethroid-resistant adults were evaluated for insecticide resistance and compared to a susceptible strain. Dose-response bioassays were conducted using two insecticide formulations (Temprid: imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin, and Transport: acetamiprid/ bifenthrin). The lethal concentration (LC50) for the two resistant egg strains exposed to imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin ranged from 3 to 5-fold higher than susceptible strain eggs. Resistant strain eggs dipped into formulations of acetamiprid/bifenthrin had LC50 values which were significantly greater (39 to 1,080-fold) than susceptible strain eggs. Similar to eggs, resistant strain first instars exposed to residual applications of imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin had LC50 values ranging from 121 to 493-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. When resistant strain first instars were treated with acetamiprid/bifenthrin, they had LC50 values that were 99 to >1,900-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. To determine differences between egg and first instar resistance, stage resistance ratios (SRR) were compared between the two stages. There was little difference between the egg and first instar stages, indicated by small SRR values ranging from 1.1 to 10.0. This study suggests that insecticide resistance is expressed early during bed bug development. View Full-Text
Keywords: bed bug; Cimex lectularius; egg; first instar; resistance bed bug; Cimex lectularius; egg; first instar; resistance
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Campbell, B.E.; Miller, D.M. Insecticide Resistance in Eggs and First Instars of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Insects 2015, 6, 122-132.

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