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Article

MtDNA Analysis Indicates Human-Induced Temporal Changes of Serbian Honey Bees Diversity

1
Department of Genetics of Populations and Ecogenotoxicology, Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”—National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Despota Stefana 142, 11060 Belgrade, Serbia
2
Center for Forensic and Applied Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
3
Center for Bee Research, Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Adam Tofilski and Andrzej Oleksa
Insects 2021, 12(9), 767; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12090767
Received: 15 July 2021 / Revised: 21 August 2021 / Accepted: 23 August 2021 / Published: 27 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity of Honey Bee: Morphology and Genetics)
The western honey bee is one of the most economically and ecologically important species currently facing serious challenges in its whole area of distribution. The honey bee is a highly diverse species with about 30 subspecies that are adapted to regional climate factors, vegetation, pests and pathogens. The local populations of honey bees are rapidly changing and their diversity is constantly manipulated by beekeepers through the import of foreign queens, selection and migratory beekeeping. This manipulation may lead to such changes that honey bees lose their ability to thrive in the areas that were previously suitable for their wellbeing. To see how this human interference changed the genetic variability of native honey bee populations from Serbia, we sequenced part of the mitochondrial genome and compared them with published sequences. Our results suggest that human influence significantly changes the natural composition of honey bees in Serbia and that the presence of some previously reported subspecies could not be confirmed.
Local populations of Apis mellifera are rapidly changing by modern beekeeping through the introduction of nonnative queens, selection and migratory beekeeping. To assess the genetic diversity of contemporary managed honey bees in Serbia, we sequenced mitochondrial tRNAleu-cox2 intergenic region of 241 worker bees from 46 apiaries at eight localities. Nine haplotypes were observed in our samples, with C2d being the most common and widespread. To evaluate genetic diversity patterns, we compared our data with 1696 sequences from the NCBI GenBank from neighbouring countries and Serbia. All 32 detected haplotypes belonged to the Southeast Europe lineage C, with two newly described haplotypes from our sample. The most frequent haplotype was C2d, followed by C2c and C1a. To distinguish A. m. carnica from A. m. macedonica, both previously reported in Serbia, PCR-RFLP analysis on the COI gene segment of mtDNA was used, and the result showed only the presence of A.m. carnica subspecies. An MDS plot constructed on pairwise FST values showed significant geographical stratification. Our samples are grouped together, but distant from the Serbian dataset from the GenBank. This, with the absence of A. m. macedonica subspecies from its historic range of distribution in southern Serbia, indicates that honey bee populations are changing rapidly due to the anthropogenic influence. View Full-Text
Keywords: honey bee; mtDNA; population genetics; haplotype diversity; subspecies honey bee; mtDNA; population genetics; haplotype diversity; subspecies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tanasković, M.; Erić, P.; Patenković, A.; Erić, K.; Mihajlović, M.; Tanasić, V.; Stanisavljević, L.; Davidović, S. MtDNA Analysis Indicates Human-Induced Temporal Changes of Serbian Honey Bees Diversity. Insects 2021, 12, 767. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12090767

AMA Style

Tanasković M, Erić P, Patenković A, Erić K, Mihajlović M, Tanasić V, Stanisavljević L, Davidović S. MtDNA Analysis Indicates Human-Induced Temporal Changes of Serbian Honey Bees Diversity. Insects. 2021; 12(9):767. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12090767

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tanasković, Marija, Pavle Erić, Aleksandra Patenković, Katarina Erić, Milica Mihajlović, Vanja Tanasić, Ljubiša Stanisavljević, and Slobodan Davidović. 2021. "MtDNA Analysis Indicates Human-Induced Temporal Changes of Serbian Honey Bees Diversity" Insects 12, no. 9: 767. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12090767

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