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Article

Residual Efficacy of Novaluron Applied on Concrete, Metal, and Wood for the Control of Stored Product Coleopteran Pests

1
Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
2
Agricultural Research Service Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE), United States Department of Agriculture, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2021, 12(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12010007
Received: 19 October 2020 / Revised: 19 December 2020 / Accepted: 21 December 2020 / Published: 25 December 2020
Insect pests of stored commodities cause harm not only to bulk grains but also to many value-added food products in mills, processing plants, and other facilities where these products are stored. In this study, the residual efficacy of an Insect Growth Regulator (IGR), novaluron, was evaluated under laboratory conditions against larvae of three stored product insects, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and Trogoderma granarium Everts, on concrete, metal, and wood surfaces to which IGRs are typically applied for pest control in such facilities. Statistically significant reductions in emergence percentages of adults compared to a distilled water control occurred for up to 12 weeks when novaluron was sprayed on concrete, metal, and wood at rates between 0.053 and 0.209 mg/m2, the highest of which induces 100% mortality at 0 weeks after treatment. Residual efficacy decreased with increasing time after treatment due to degradation and sorption of novaluron into the surfaces. Novaluron residues were most persistent on metal and least persistent on wood surfaces. Knowledge of novaluron residual efficacy on storage facility surfaces can be helpful guidance for timing of postharvest insect pest management treatments as the costs of commonly used pesticides increase along with insect resistance to such pesticides.
The residual efficacy of novaluron on concrete, metal and wood was evaluated against last-instar larvae of Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), Triboliumcastaneum (Herbst), and Trogoderma granarium Everts. The larvae and food provided for survival were exposed to surfaces pretreated at rates of 0.053, to 0.209 mg/m2 and bioassays were conducted from 0- to 16-weeks post-treatment. Percentage emergence of adults was recorded after 30 days (d). On all surfaces at week 0, no O. surinamensis or T.castaneum adults emerged, and ≤3.3% emergence of T. granarium was found at 0.209 mg/m2. Novaluron significantly reduced the percentage emergence of adults of the three species compared to a distilled water control for the first 12 weeks on all the tested surfaces as the residual efficacy declined at a low rate during initial weeks and then at a high rate in the final weeks of the 16-week study. Reductions to emergence were most persistent on metal surfaces, with mean percentages of adult emergence of ≤18.3 in week 12, followed by concrete (≤32.5) and wood (≤45.0) for all species at novaluron application rates of 0.209 mg/m2. For >4-weeks protection, higher application rates would be needed to avoid buildup of pest populations and reductions in profitability. Such results can be helpful for the management of O. surinamensis, T.castaneum, and T. granarium as the costs of commonly used insecticides against postharvest insect pests and the resistance of these insects to the pesticides gradually increase in mills, warehouses, and food storage facilities. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitin synthesis inhibitor; insect growth regulator; surface treatment chitin synthesis inhibitor; insect growth regulator; surface treatment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yasir, M.; Mankin, R.W.; ul Hasan, M.; Sagheer, M. Residual Efficacy of Novaluron Applied on Concrete, Metal, and Wood for the Control of Stored Product Coleopteran Pests. Insects 2021, 12, 7. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12010007

AMA Style

Yasir M, Mankin RW, ul Hasan M, Sagheer M. Residual Efficacy of Novaluron Applied on Concrete, Metal, and Wood for the Control of Stored Product Coleopteran Pests. Insects. 2021; 12(1):7. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12010007

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yasir, Muhammad, Richard W. Mankin, Mansoor ul Hasan, and Muhammad Sagheer. 2021. "Residual Efficacy of Novaluron Applied on Concrete, Metal, and Wood for the Control of Stored Product Coleopteran Pests" Insects 12, no. 1: 7. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12010007

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