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Hidden in Plain Sight: Comprehensive Molecular Phylogeny of Keroplatidae and Lygistorrhinidae (Diptera) Reveals Parallel Evolution and Leads to a Revised Family Classification

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Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, Chittussiho 10, 71000 Ostrava, Czech Republic
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Department of Natural Sciences, National Museums Scotland, Chambers Street, Edinburgh EH1 1JF, UK
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Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK
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Tromsø University Museum, UiT—The Arctic University of Norway, P.O. box 6050 Langnes, NO-9037 Tromsø, Norway
5
Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi st 5D, 51006 Tartu, Estonia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2020, 11(6), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11060348
Received: 20 May 2020 / Revised: 31 May 2020 / Accepted: 1 June 2020 / Published: 4 June 2020
We provide the first molecular phylogeny of Keroplatidae and Lygistorrhinidae, families of fungus gnats (Diptera: Bibionomorpha: Sciaroidea). Phylogenies reconstructed by Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian methods, based on four nuclear and four mitochondrial gene markers (5106 base pairs) sequenced for 75 genera and 105 species, show Keroplatidae as monophyletic only with the family Lygistorrhinidae included, herewith treated as the subfamily Lygistorrhininae stat. nov. The subfamily Arachnocampinae is retained in the family, although lowering its overall support. An early branching clade, comprising species of Platyura Meigen, 1803 and Paleoplatyura melanderi Fisher, 1941, forms subfamily Platyurinae Loew, 1850 stat. nov. The subfamilies Sciarokeroplatinae and Macrocerinae grouped together with three genera considered here as Keroplatidae incertae sedis. Subfamily Lygistorrhininae forms a sister clade to subfamily Keroplatinae, both retained monophyletic with high support. The traditional division of the subfamily Keroplatinae into the tribes Orfeliini and Keroplatini appears as outdated, resting largely on adaptive characters prone to parallel evolution. We find support for an alternative tribe corresponding to the CloeophoromyiaAsindulum genus group, but a tribal reclassification of the Keroplatinae is left for future studies. The genus Heteropterna Skuse, 1888 is considered as identical with Ctenoceridion Matile, 1972 syn. nov. View Full-Text
Keywords: predaceous fungus gnats; phylogenetics; classification; Sciaroidea; Keroplatidae; Lygistorrhinidae predaceous fungus gnats; phylogenetics; classification; Sciaroidea; Keroplatidae; Lygistorrhinidae
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Mantič, M.; Sikora, T.; Burdíková, N.; Blagoderov, V.; Kjærandsen, J.; Kurina, O.; Ševčík, J. Hidden in Plain Sight: Comprehensive Molecular Phylogeny of Keroplatidae and Lygistorrhinidae (Diptera) Reveals Parallel Evolution and Leads to a Revised Family Classification. Insects 2020, 11, 348.

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