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The Time–Concentration–Mortality Responses of Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, to the Synergistic Interaction of Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium flavoviride, Insecticides, and Diatomaceous Earth

1
State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-Resources in Yunnan, College of Plant Protection, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201, China
2
International Cooperation and exchange Department, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201, China
3
College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2020, 11(2), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11020093
Received: 7 November 2019 / Revised: 22 January 2020 / Accepted: 24 January 2020 / Published: 1 February 2020
Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is a highly invasive pest which is harmful to many cash crops globally and resistant to various insecticides. Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF), as biological control agents, have demonstrated a good control effect on WFT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the synergistic and pathogenicity efficacy of the fungal strain Metarhizium flavoviride WSWL51721 when distributed with diatomaceous earth (DE) and the active ingredient imidacloprid using four bioassay methods against adult and second instar larvae of WFT. The data of the four bioassays have been fitted to the time–concentration–mortality (TCM) model. The corrected mortality ranges of WFT adults were 75–100%, 82.69–100%, 78.85–100%, and 92.31–100%, and the corrected mortality ranges of WFT second instar larvae were 72.22–100%, 85.19–100%, 77.77–100%, and 100% in the four bioassays at concentrations of 1.2 × 106 to 1.2 × 108 conidia/mL, respectively. At 1.2 × 108 conidia/mL, assays 2 (M. flavoviride with DE), 3 (M. flavoviride with imidacloprid), and 4 (M. flavoviride with DE and imidacloprid) had the shortest median lethal time (LT50), compared with that of assay 1 (M. flavoviride alone) for adults at 2.26 d, 2.06 d, and 1.53 d, and second instar larvae at 2.45 d, 1.70 d, and 1.41 d, respectively. The median lethal concentration (LC50) in the four bioassays decreased within 3–10 days of inoculation. On the third day, it was found that the lowest median lethal concentrations in assays 2, 3, and 4 were 1.58 × 107, 1.13 × 107, and 3.39 × 106 conidia/mL, respectively, which were significantly different from that in assay 1 for the adults. For the second instar larvae, assays 2, 3, and 4 also had the lowest lethal concentrations and were significantly different from those of assay 1. There were significant differences in sporulation between adults and second instar larvae under the four bioassays. Our results indicate that assays 2 (M. flavoviride with DE), 3 (M. flavoviride with imidacloprid), and 4 (M. flavoviride with DE and imidacloprid) demonstrate synergistic effects on the control of both adult and second instar larvae of WFT under laboratory conditions.
Keywords: Frankliniella occidentalis; Metarhizium flavoviride; Insecticides; Diatomaceous earth; Synergism; Time–concentration–mortality modelling Frankliniella occidentalis; Metarhizium flavoviride; Insecticides; Diatomaceous earth; Synergism; Time–concentration–mortality modelling
MDPI and ACS Style

Ge, W.; Du, G.; Zhang, L.; Li, Z.; Xiao, G.; Chen, B. The Time–Concentration–Mortality Responses of Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, to the Synergistic Interaction of Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium flavoviride, Insecticides, and Diatomaceous Earth. Insects 2020, 11, 93.

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