Next Article in Journal
First Insight into Microbiome Profiles of Myrmecophilous Beetles and Their Host, Red Wood Ant Formica polyctena (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)—A Case Study
Previous Article in Journal
Pollen Protein: Lipid Macronutrient Ratios May Guide Broad Patterns of Bee Species Floral Preferences
Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle

Synergistic Toxicity Interactions between Plant Essential Oil Components against the Common Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius L.)

Center for Urban and Industrial Pest Management, Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Insects 2020, 11(2), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects11020133
Received: 21 January 2020 / Revised: 13 February 2020 / Accepted: 15 February 2020 / Published: 19 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Management of Bed Bugs)
Management of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) necessitates the use of multiple control techniques. In addition to synthetic pesticides and mechanical interventions, plant-derived essential oils represent one of the control options. Mixtures of two or more essential oil components (monoterpenoids) exhibit synergistic toxicity effects against insects due to increased cuticular penetration. Monoterpenoids, such as carvacrol, eugenol and thymol, are neurologically active and inhibit the nerve firing activity of C. lectularius. However, the effects of mixtures of these monoterpenoids on their toxicity and neuroinhibitory potential against C. lectularius are not known. In this study, the toxicity levels of a tertiary mixture of carvacrol, eugenol and thymol (1:1:1 ratio) and a binary mixture of synthetic insecticides, bifenthrin and imidacloprid (1:1 ratio) were evaluated against C. lectularius through topical bioassays and electrophysiology experiments. Both a mixture of monoterpenoids and the mixture of synthetic insecticides exhibited synergistic effects in topical bioassays. In electrophysiology experiments, the monoterpenoid mixture led to greater neuroinhibitory effects, whereas a mixture of synthetic insecticides caused higher neuroexcitatory effects in comparison to single compounds. This study shows evidence for neurological mechanisms of synergistic interactions between monoterpenoids and provides information regarding the utilization of natural compound mixtures for C. lectularius management. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cimex lectularius L.; plant essential oils; monoterpenoids; bifenthrin; imidacloprid; synergism; electrophysiology Cimex lectularius L.; plant essential oils; monoterpenoids; bifenthrin; imidacloprid; synergism; electrophysiology
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Gaire, S.; Scharf, M.E.; Gondhalekar, A.D. Synergistic Toxicity Interactions between Plant Essential Oil Components against the Common Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius L.). Insects 2020, 11, 133.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop