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Lubricants, Volume 8, Issue 12 (December 2020) – 6 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Shear thinning of hydraulic fluids formulated with polymeric additives directly affects the efficiency of hydraulic systems, such as axial piston pumps. Simple models can be used to predict the shear rate at which thinning begins, and molecular dynamics simulations explain how polymer concentration and molecular weight affect this critical shear rate. View this paper.
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Article
Viscoelastic Effects during Tangential Contact Analyzed by a Novel Finite Element Approach with Embedded Interface Profiles
Lubricants 2020, 8(12), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8120107 - 19 Dec 2020
Viewed by 822
Abstract
A computational approach that is based on interface finite elements with eMbedded Profiles for Joint Roughness (MPJR) is exploited in order to study the viscoelastic contact problems with any complex shape of the indenting profiles. The MPJR finite elements, previously developed for partial [...] Read more.
A computational approach that is based on interface finite elements with eMbedded Profiles for Joint Roughness (MPJR) is exploited in order to study the viscoelastic contact problems with any complex shape of the indenting profiles. The MPJR finite elements, previously developed for partial slip contact problems, are herein further generalized in order to deal with finite sliding displacements. The approach is applied to a case study concerning a periodic contact problem between a sinusoidal profile and a viscoelastic layer of finite thickness. In particular, the effect of using three different rheological models that are based on Prony series (with one, two, or three arms) to approximate the viscoelastic behaviour of a real polymer is investigated. The method allows for predicting the whole transient regime during the normal contact problem and the subsequent sliding scenario from full stick to full slip, and then up to gross sliding. The effects of the viscoelastic model approximation and of the sliding velocities are carefully investigated. The proposed approach aims at tackling a class of problems that are difficult to address with other methods, which include the possibility of analysing indenters of generic profile, the capability of simulating partial slip and gross slip due to finite slidings, and, finally, the possibility of simultaneously investigating dissipative phenomena, like viscoelastic dissipation and energy losses due to interface friction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interfacial Dissipative Phenomena in Tribomechanical Systems)
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Article
Study of Frictional Effects of Granite Subjected to Quasi-Static Contact Loading
Lubricants 2020, 8(12), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8120106 - 16 Dec 2020
Viewed by 620
Abstract
The rock fragmentation response to drilling, in particular percussive drilling, is important in order to improve the efficiency of such an operation. The resulting problem includes spherical contact between the drill bit and the material and therefore, a numerical analysis of frictional effects [...] Read more.
The rock fragmentation response to drilling, in particular percussive drilling, is important in order to improve the efficiency of such an operation. The resulting problem includes spherical contact between the drill bit and the material and therefore, a numerical analysis of frictional effects in quasi-static spherical indentation of Bohus granite is presented. The frictional coefficient between the indenter and the granite surface is accounted for in numerical simulations. A previously determined constitutive law is used for the purpose of numerical analyses. The latter consists of a Drucker-Prager plasticity model with variable dilation angle coupled with an anisotropic damage model. Since the tensile strength is random, Weibull statistics was considered. Using a frictionless contact model, the stress state of Bohus granite corresponding to the first material failure occurrence, observed in indentation experiments, was numerically determined. However, the frictional effects, which are of interest in this study, may lead to changes in the numerically established stress state and consequently the Weibull parameters should be recalibrated. The so-called Weibull stress decreases from 120 MPa for a frictionless contact to 75 MPa for frictional contact, and the Weibull modulus from 24 to 12. It is numerically observed that the predicted force-penetration response, using the new set of Weibull parameters, is not influenced by friction. Conversely, the predicted fracture pattern, in the case of frictional contact, is similar to the case of frictionless contact, but its size is somewhat larger. Last, a parametric study analyzing the dependence of the friction coefficient is carried out and no significant changes are detected. The novelty of the present findings concerns the fact that both an advanced damage description in combination with an advanced plasticity model, both implemented for finite element analyses, is used to analyze frictional effects at granite indentation. Full article
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Article
The Basin Stability of Bi-Stable Friction-Excited Oscillators
Lubricants 2020, 8(12), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8120105 - 08 Dec 2020
Viewed by 636
Abstract
Stability considerations play a central role in structural dynamics to determine states that are robust against perturbations during the operation. Linear stability concepts, such as the complex eigenvalue analysis, constitute the core of analysis approaches in engineering reality. However, most stability concepts are [...] Read more.
Stability considerations play a central role in structural dynamics to determine states that are robust against perturbations during the operation. Linear stability concepts, such as the complex eigenvalue analysis, constitute the core of analysis approaches in engineering reality. However, most stability concepts are limited to local perturbations, i.e., they can only measure a state’s stability against small perturbations. Recently, the concept of basin stability was proposed as a global stability concept for multi-stable systems. As multi-stability is a well-known property of a range of nonlinear dynamical systems, this work studies the basin stability of bi-stable mechanical oscillators that are affected and self-excited by dry friction. The results indicate how the basin stability complements the classical binary stability concepts for quantifying how stable a state is given a set of permissible perturbations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interfacial Dissipative Phenomena in Tribomechanical Systems)
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Article
Influence of Solid Lubricants on the Tribological Performance of Photocurable Resins for Vat Photopolymerization
Lubricants 2020, 8(12), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8120104 - 04 Dec 2020
Viewed by 618
Abstract
New developments in additive manufacturing (AM) are enabling the use of 3D printed parts in increasingly demanding applications, such as in mechanical power transmission systems, where excellent build quality and tribological performance are required. The tribological properties of thermoplastic-based AM technologies are well [...] Read more.
New developments in additive manufacturing (AM) are enabling the use of 3D printed parts in increasingly demanding applications, such as in mechanical power transmission systems, where excellent build quality and tribological performance are required. The tribological properties of thermoplastic-based AM technologies are well knowninject, whereas the performance of photopolymer-based AM technologies is very rarely explored. This study aims to provide new insight into the tribological performance of 3D printed parts produced using vat photopolymerization (VPP). Photocurable resins based on aliphatic urethane acrylate oligomers were modified with different solid lubricants (polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), graphite and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)) and 3D printed using Digital Light Processing (DLP). The mechanical and thermal properties were studied using the tensile tests, Charpy impact tests, Shore D, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The tribological performance was studied using a Pin-on-Disk tribometer. Among the lubricants, PTFE had the highest impact on the coefficient of friction (µ) and the specific wear rate (ws). The hybrid lubricant system (PTFE/MoS2) resulted in excellent tribological performance, where the µ was reduced by up to 52% and ws by up to 92%. Full article
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Article
Numerical Methodology for Determining the Energy Losses in Auxiliary Systems and Friction Processes Applied to Low Displacement Diesel Engines
Lubricants 2020, 8(12), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8120103 - 03 Dec 2020
Viewed by 580
Abstract
The problem of climate change and the reduction of fossil fuels has motivated the development of research focused on improving the efficiency of internal combustion engines. This research proposes a methodology based on mathematical models to determine the energy losses caused by auxiliary [...] Read more.
The problem of climate change and the reduction of fossil fuels has motivated the development of research focused on improving the efficiency of internal combustion engines. This research proposes a methodology based on mathematical models to determine the energy losses caused by auxiliary systems and friction processes in the engine. Therefore, models are proposed for calculating the energy losses in fuel injection, lubrication, and cooling system. In the same way, models are proposed for the energy losses due to friction in the piston, valve train, and bearings. Experimental tests are carried out on a single-cylinder diesel engine under different operating conditions to validate the proposed models. The results showed that the energy losses of the fuel injection, lubrication, and coolant system are equal to 0.61%, 0.30%, and 0.31% of the chemical energy of the injected fuel. In the case of the energy losses by friction processes, the piston, valve train, and bearings represent 5.47%, 1.34%, and 1.85% of the fuel energy, respectively. Additionally, the proposed model allows estimating the minimum lubrication film present in the piston, valve train, and bearings, which in the particular case of the present study were 0.63 µm, 0.10 µm, and 0.57 µm, respectively. In general, the methodology developed in the present work stands as a robust tool to evaluate the modifications and/or designs of auxiliary systems and friction processes to reduce the energy losses and protect the system from wear caused by lubrication problems. Additionally, the methodology allows evaluating the effect of different types of fuels on the lubrication conditions of the piston and the crankshaft bearings. Full article
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Article
Critical Shear Rate of Polymer-Enhanced Hydraulic Fluids
Lubricants 2020, 8(12), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants8120102 - 25 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1032
Abstract
Many application-relevant fluids exhibit shear thinning, where viscosity decreases with shear rate above some critical shear rate. For hydraulic fluids formulated with polymeric additives, the critical shear rate is a function of the molecular weight and concentration of the polymers. Here we present [...] Read more.
Many application-relevant fluids exhibit shear thinning, where viscosity decreases with shear rate above some critical shear rate. For hydraulic fluids formulated with polymeric additives, the critical shear rate is a function of the molecular weight and concentration of the polymers. Here we present a model for predicting the critical shear rate and Newtonian viscosity of fluids, with the goal of identifying a fluid that shear thins in a specific range relevant to hydraulic pumps. The model is applied to predict the properties of fluids comprising polyisobutene polymer and polyalphaolefin base oil. The theoretical predictions are validated by comparison to viscosities obtained from experimental measurements and molecular dynamics simulations across many decades of shear rates. Results demonstrate that the molecular weight of the polymer plays a key role in determining the critical shear rate, whereas the concentration of polymer primarily affects the Newtonian viscosity. The simulations are further used to show the molecular origins of shear thinning and critical shear rate. The atomistic simulations and simple model developed in this work can ultimately be used to formulate polymer-enhanced fluids with ideal shear thinning profiles that maximize the efficiency of hydraulic systems. Full article
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