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Review

Nuclear Imaging for the Diagnosis of Cardiac Amyloidosis in 2021

1
Department of Medicine, Jacobi Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1400 Pelham Parkway South, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
2
Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
3
Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 111 East 210th Street, Bronx, NY 10467, USA
4
Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 111 East 210th Street, Bronx, NY 10467, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael Henein
Diagnostics 2021, 11(6), 996; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11060996
Received: 16 May 2021 / Revised: 24 May 2021 / Accepted: 27 May 2021 / Published: 30 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cardiovascular Imaging 2021)
Cardiac amyloidosis is caused by the deposition of misfolded protein fibrils into the extracellular space of the heart. The diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis remains challenging because of the heterogeneous manifestations of the disease. There are many different types of amyloidosis with light-chain (AL) amyloidosis and transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis being the most common types of cardiac amyloidosis. Endomyocardial biopsy is considered the gold standard for diagnosing cardiac amyloidosis and differentiating amyloid subtypes, but its use is limited because of the invasive nature of the procedure, with risks for complications and the need for specialized training and centers to perform the procedure. Radionuclide cardiac imaging has recently become the most commonly performed test for the diagnosis of ATTR amyloidosis but is of limited value for the diagnosis of AL amyloidosis. Positron emission tomography has been increasingly used for the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis and its applications are expected to expand in the future. Imaging protocols are under refinement to achieve better quantification of the disease burden and prediction of prognosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiac amyloidosis; cardiac scintigraphy; positron emission tomography cardiac amyloidosis; cardiac scintigraphy; positron emission tomography
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, W.; Uppal, D.; Wang, Y.C.; Xu, X.; Kokkinidis, D.G.; Travin, M.I.; Tauras, J.M. Nuclear Imaging for the Diagnosis of Cardiac Amyloidosis in 2021. Diagnostics 2021, 11, 996. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11060996

AMA Style

Li W, Uppal D, Wang YC, Xu X, Kokkinidis DG, Travin MI, Tauras JM. Nuclear Imaging for the Diagnosis of Cardiac Amyloidosis in 2021. Diagnostics. 2021; 11(6):996. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11060996

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Weijia, Dipan Uppal, Yu C. Wang, Xiaobo Xu, Damianos G. Kokkinidis, Mark I. Travin, and James M. Tauras 2021. "Nuclear Imaging for the Diagnosis of Cardiac Amyloidosis in 2021" Diagnostics 11, no. 6: 996. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11060996

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