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Open AccessArticle

Fold-Over Oversampling Effects in the Measurements of Cerebral Cerebrospinal Fluid and Blood Flows with 2D Cine Phase-Contrast MRI

MRI Research GIE-FF, CHU Amiens Picardie, 80054 Amiens, France
CHIMERE EA7516, University Picardy Jules Verne, 80025 Amiens, France
Pole Imagerie, CHU Amiens Picardie, 80054 Amiens, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diagnostics 2020, 10(6), 387;
Received: 19 February 2020 / Revised: 4 June 2020 / Accepted: 5 June 2020 / Published: 9 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Imaging/Neuroimaging)
This prospective study investigated the effects of fold-over oversampling on phase-offset background errors with 2D-Cine phase contrast (Cine-PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It was performed on brain MRI and compared to conventional Full-field of view FOV coverage and it was tested with two different velocity encoding (Venc) values. We chose Venc = 100 mm/s to encode cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flows in the aqueduct and 600 mm/s to encode blood flow in the carotid artery. Cine-PC was carried out on 10 healthy adult volunteers followed simultaneously by an acquisition on static agar-gel phantom to measure the phase-offset background errors. Pixel-wise correction of both the CSF and the blood flows was calculated through 32 points of the cardiac-cycle. We compared the velocity-to-noise ratio, the section area, the absolute and the corrected velocity (peak; mean and minimum), the net flow, and the stroke volume before and after correction. We performed the statistical T-test to compare Full-FOV and fold-over and Bland–Altman plots to analyze their differences. Our results showed that following phase-offset error correction, the blood stroke-volume was significantly higher with Full-FOV compared to fold-over. We observed a significantly higher CSF mean velocity and net flow values in the fold-over option. Compared to Full-FOV, fold-over provides a significantly larger section area and significantly lower peak velocity-offset in the aqueduct. No significant difference between the two coverages was reported before and after phase-offset in blood flow measurements. In conclusion, fold-over oversampling can be chosen as an alternative to increase spatial resolution and accurate cerebral flow quantification in Cine-PC. View Full-Text
Keywords: cine-phase contrast; phase-offset; fold-over oversampling; brain dynamics cine-phase contrast; phase-offset; fold-over oversampling; brain dynamics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Saadani-Makki, F.; Metanbou, S.; Arbeaumont-Trocme, G.; Van Gysel, J.; Makki, M.I. Fold-Over Oversampling Effects in the Measurements of Cerebral Cerebrospinal Fluid and Blood Flows with 2D Cine Phase-Contrast MRI. Diagnostics 2020, 10, 387.

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