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Open AccessArticle

Fold-Over Oversampling Effects in the Measurements of Cerebral Cerebrospinal Fluid and Blood Flows with 2D Cine Phase-Contrast MRI

1
MRI Research GIE-FF, CHU Amiens Picardie, 80054 Amiens, France
2
CHIMERE EA7516, University Picardy Jules Verne, 80025 Amiens, France
3
Pole Imagerie, CHU Amiens Picardie, 80054 Amiens, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diagnostics 2020, 10(6), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10060387
Received: 19 February 2020 / Revised: 4 June 2020 / Accepted: 5 June 2020 / Published: 9 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Imaging/Neuroimaging)
This prospective study investigated the effects of fold-over oversampling on phase-offset background errors with 2D-Cine phase contrast (Cine-PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It was performed on brain MRI and compared to conventional Full-field of view FOV coverage and it was tested with two different velocity encoding (Venc) values. We chose Venc = 100 mm/s to encode cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flows in the aqueduct and 600 mm/s to encode blood flow in the carotid artery. Cine-PC was carried out on 10 healthy adult volunteers followed simultaneously by an acquisition on static agar-gel phantom to measure the phase-offset background errors. Pixel-wise correction of both the CSF and the blood flows was calculated through 32 points of the cardiac-cycle. We compared the velocity-to-noise ratio, the section area, the absolute and the corrected velocity (peak; mean and minimum), the net flow, and the stroke volume before and after correction. We performed the statistical T-test to compare Full-FOV and fold-over and Bland–Altman plots to analyze their differences. Our results showed that following phase-offset error correction, the blood stroke-volume was significantly higher with Full-FOV compared to fold-over. We observed a significantly higher CSF mean velocity and net flow values in the fold-over option. Compared to Full-FOV, fold-over provides a significantly larger section area and significantly lower peak velocity-offset in the aqueduct. No significant difference between the two coverages was reported before and after phase-offset in blood flow measurements. In conclusion, fold-over oversampling can be chosen as an alternative to increase spatial resolution and accurate cerebral flow quantification in Cine-PC. View Full-Text
Keywords: cine-phase contrast; phase-offset; fold-over oversampling; brain dynamics cine-phase contrast; phase-offset; fold-over oversampling; brain dynamics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Saadani-Makki, F.; Metanbou, S.; Arbeaumont-Trocme, G.; Van Gysel, J.; Makki, M.I. Fold-Over Oversampling Effects in the Measurements of Cerebral Cerebrospinal Fluid and Blood Flows with 2D Cine Phase-Contrast MRI. Diagnostics 2020, 10, 387.

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