Next Article in Journal
Cost-Effective Seismic Exploration: 2D Reflection Imaging at the Kylylahti Massive Sulfide Deposit, Finland
Next Article in Special Issue
Phosphate Mine Tailing Recycling in Membrane Filter Manufacturing: Microstructure and Filtration Suitability
Previous Article in Journal
Diamond-Bearing Root Beneath the Northern East European Platform (Arkhangelsk Region, Russia): Evidence from Cr-Pyrope Trace-Element Geochemistry
Previous Article in Special Issue
Review on Beneficiation Techniques and Reagents Used for Phosphate Ores
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Rare Earth Occurrences in Streams of Processing a Phosphate Ore

1
Geological Survey of Finland, Outokumpu 83500, Finland
2
Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo 02151, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2019, 9(5), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9050262
Received: 11 February 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 27 April 2019 / Published: 30 April 2019
  |  
PDF [939 KB, uploaded 30 April 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

Rare earth elements (REEs) are defined as lanthanides with Y and Sc. Rare earth occurrences including the REE-bearing phases and their distributions, measured by rare earth oxides (REOs), in the streams of processing a phosphate ore were determined by using MLA, the mineral liberation analysis and EPMA, the electron probe microanalysis. The process includes an apatite ore beneficiation by flotation and further processing of the beneficiation concentrate with sulfuric acid. Twenty-six, sixty-two and twelve percent of the total REOs (TREO) contents from the ore end up in the products of beneficiation tailings, phosphogypsum (PG) and phosphoric acid, respectively. Apatite, allanite, monazite and pyrochlore are identified as REE-bearing minerals in the beneficiation process. In the beneficiation tailings, the REEs are mainly distributed in monazite (10.3% TREO), apatite (5.9% TREO), allanite (5.4% TREO) and pyrochlore (4.3% TREO). Gypsum, monazite, apatite and other REE-bearing phases were found to host REEs in the PG and the REEs distributions are 44.9% TREO in gypsum, 15.8% TREO in monazite, 0.6% TREO in apatite and 0.6% TREO in other REE-bearing phases. Perspectives on the efficient recovery of REEs from the beneficiation tailings and the PG are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: rare earth elements (REEs); phosphate ore processing; REE-bearing phases; beneficiation tailings; phosphogypsum (PG) rare earth elements (REEs); phosphate ore processing; REE-bearing phases; beneficiation tailings; phosphogypsum (PG)
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, X.; Makkonen, H.T.; Pakkanen, L. Rare Earth Occurrences in Streams of Processing a Phosphate Ore. Minerals 2019, 9, 262.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Minerals EISSN 2075-163X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top