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Open AccessArticle

Characterization of Diatomaceous Earth and Halloysite Resources of Poland

1
Department of Mining, Faculty of Mining, Safety Engineering and Industrial Automation, Silesian University of Technology, ul. Akademicka 2, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
2
Division of Nanocrystalline and Functional Materials and Sustainable Proecological Technologies, Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, Konarskiego 18a, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
3
Department of Applied Geology, Faculty of Mining, Safety Engineering and Industrial Automation, Silesian University of Technology, ul. Akademicka 2, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2019, 9(11), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9110670
Received: 28 August 2019 / Revised: 25 October 2019 / Accepted: 29 October 2019 / Published: 31 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Deposits of Central Europe)
The mining industry of Poland is based mostly on coal and copper ores. Strict carbon emissions and the depletion of deposits will slowly phase out coal. Therefore, metallic ores and other mineral raw materials will dominate the extractive industry of Poland. Current measured resources of the largest deposits of halloysite and diatomaceous earth in Poland are over 0.5 Mt and 10 Mt, respectively. Halloysite and diatomaceous earth samples from halloysite Dunino deposits and Jawornik diatomaceous earth deposits (composed mostly of diatomaceous skeletons (frustules)) were subjected to mineralogical analysis, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) nanostructural, chemical, elemental, and mineral content analysis. Both these minerals have similar properties, i.e., sorption capacity and cation exchange capacity, and are used mostly for the same purposes, e.g., adsorbents, filler material, and filtration. Samples of Dunino halloysite consist of minerals such as halloysite, kaolinite, hematite, magnetite, quartz, magnesioferrite, rutile, ilmenite, geikielite, goyazite, gorceixite, and crandallite, with little impurities in the form of iron oxides. Occasionally, halloysite nanoplates (HNP) nanotubes (HNT) were found. Diatomaceous earth is composed mainly of silica-containing phases (quartz, opal) and clay minerals (illite and kaolinite). The frustules of diatoms are mostly centric (discoid) and have radius values of approximately 50–60 μm. Large resources of these minerals could be used in the future either for manufacturing composite materials or highly advanced adsorbents. View Full-Text
Keywords: halloysite; diatomite; mineral deposit; mineral absorbent halloysite; diatomite; mineral deposit; mineral absorbent
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Lutyński, M.; Sakiewicz, P.; Lutyńska, S. Characterization of Diatomaceous Earth and Halloysite Resources of Poland. Minerals 2019, 9, 670.

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