The mining industry of Poland is based mostly on coal and copper ores. Strict carbon emissions and the depletion of deposits will slowly phase out coal. Therefore, metallic ores and other mineral raw materials will dominate the extractive industry of Poland. Current measured resources of the largest deposits of halloysite and diatomaceous earth in Poland are over 0.5 Mt and 10 Mt, respectively. Halloysite and diatomaceous earth samples from halloysite Dunino deposits and Jawornik diatomaceous earth deposits (composed mostly of diatomaceous skeletons (frustules)) were subjected to mineralogical analysis, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) nanostructural, chemical, elemental, and mineral content analysis. Both these minerals have similar properties, i.e., sorption capacity and cation exchange capacity, and are used mostly for the same purposes, e.g., adsorbents, filler material, and filtration. Samples of Dunino halloysite consist of minerals such as halloysite, kaolinite, hematite, magnetite, quartz, magnesioferrite, rutile, ilmenite, geikielite, goyazite, gorceixite, and crandallite, with little impurities in the form of iron oxides. Occasionally, halloysite nanoplates (HNP) nanotubes (HNT) were found. Diatomaceous earth is composed mainly of silica-containing phases (quartz, opal) and clay minerals (illite and kaolinite). The frustules of diatoms are mostly centric (discoid) and have radius values of approximately 50–60 μm. Large resources of these minerals could be used in the future either for manufacturing composite materials or highly advanced adsorbents.
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