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Open AccessArticle

Factors Affecting the Perception of 3D Facial Symmetry from 2D Projections

School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AT, UK
Symmetry 2017, 9(10), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9100243
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
Facial symmetry is believed to have an evolutionary significance and so its detection should be robust in natural settings. Previous studies of facial symmetry detection have used front views of faces where the decision could be made on 2D image properties rather than 3D facial properties. These studies also employed comparative judgements, which could be influenced by attractiveness rather than symmetry. Two experiments explored the ability to detect typical levels of 3D facial asymmetry (contrasted with wholly symmetrical faces) from 2D projections of faces. Experiment 1 showed that asymmetry detection was impaired by inversion but even more impaired by 90 degrees rotation demonstrating the importance of the vertical reflection. Asymmetry detection was also reduced by yaw rotation of the head but still above-chance at 30 degrees rotation. Experiment 2 explored the effect of asymmetrical lighting and yaw rotation up to 45 degrees. Detection of asymmetry was affected by asymmetrical lighting and yaw rotation in a non-additive manner. The results are discussed in terms of the special role that faces and vertical symmetry play in visual perception. View Full-Text
Keywords: facial symmetry; 3D structure; face inversion facial symmetry; 3D structure; face inversion
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lewis, M.B. Factors Affecting the Perception of 3D Facial Symmetry from 2D Projections. Symmetry 2017, 9, 243.

AMA Style

Lewis MB. Factors Affecting the Perception of 3D Facial Symmetry from 2D Projections. Symmetry. 2017; 9(10):243.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lewis, Michael B. 2017. "Factors Affecting the Perception of 3D Facial Symmetry from 2D Projections" Symmetry 9, no. 10: 243.

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