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Article

Modelling of Consumption Shares for Small Wind Energy Prosumers

1
Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56, EE51006 Tartu, Estonia
2
Canmet ENERGY Research Centre, Natural Resources Canada, 1 Haanel Drive, Ottawa, ON K1A 1M1, Canada
3
Department of Electrical Power Engineering and Mechatronics, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, EE19086 Tallinn, Estonia
4
Department of Solar Business, Eesti Gaas AS, EE10111 Tallinn, Estonia
5
Institute of Engineering Sciences, Pskov State University, 180000 Pskov, Russia
6
Estonian Centre of Industrial Mathematics, EE51009 Tartu, Estonia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Raúl Baños Navarro and Alfredo Alcayde
Symmetry 2021, 13(4), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13040647
Received: 7 March 2021 / Revised: 29 March 2021 / Accepted: 9 April 2021 / Published: 11 April 2021
This article describes a simulation of energy distribution in an average household where electricity is produced with a small wind generator or purchased from the public electricity grid. Numerical experiments conducted within an average of five minutes were performed using annual production and consumption graphs. Virtual storage devices, a water tank and a battery were used to buffer energy inside the household. The energy required for non-shiftable consumption and hot water consumption were taken directly from the utility grid. Surplus energy remaining from wind generator production after providing for consumption and storage needs were redirected there. A cover factor was used as a measure of the efficiency of energy distribution. One of the aims of the article was to determine by simulations the change of the cover factor in a virtually designed situation where the expected energy output of the wind generator was known in advance over one to three hours. The results found that for the configuration of the proposed nanogrid option, the positive results were readily achieved when the expected wind generator production was known an hour ahead. Then, the cover factor increased from 0.593 to 0.645. The side result of using projected/expected production is an increase in asymmetrical energy exchanges bilaterally between nanogrid and utility grid in favour of grid sales. Another finding was that the cover factor depended on the wind generator’s production intensity but less on the intensity of consumption within the household.It is hoped/expected that future research will address the prediction of output using mathematical methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: self-consumption; cover factor; load shifting; energy storage; wind energy; simulation; green energy; nanogrid; water heater; battery self-consumption; cover factor; load shifting; energy storage; wind energy; simulation; green energy; nanogrid; water heater; battery
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MDPI and ACS Style

Annuk, A.; Yaïci, W.; Blinov, A.; Märss, M.; Trashchenkov, S.; Miidla, P. Modelling of Consumption Shares for Small Wind Energy Prosumers. Symmetry 2021, 13, 647. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13040647

AMA Style

Annuk A, Yaïci W, Blinov A, Märss M, Trashchenkov S, Miidla P. Modelling of Consumption Shares for Small Wind Energy Prosumers. Symmetry. 2021; 13(4):647. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13040647

Chicago/Turabian Style

Annuk, Andres, Wahiba Yaïci, Andrei Blinov, Maido Märss, Sergei Trashchenkov, and Peep Miidla. 2021. "Modelling of Consumption Shares for Small Wind Energy Prosumers" Symmetry 13, no. 4: 647. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13040647

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