Design of ShortTurning Service for a Bus Route with Hybrid Vehicle Type
Abstract
:1. Introduction
2. ShortTurning Service Design Models for a Bus Route
2.1. Total Costs of a Bus Route
2.2. Model for ShortTurning Service with Single Vehicle Type
2.3. Model for Short Turning Service with Hybrid Vehicle Type
3. Performance Measure: Load Factor
4. Solution Methods
4.1. A LayerByLayer Search Method
Algorithm 1: A layerbylayer search algorithm 

4.2. Solution Simulation Incorporating Monte Carlo Method
5. Numerical Test
5.1. Experimental Surroundings
5.2. Experimental Results and Analysis
6. Conclusions
Author Contributions
Funding
Conflicts of Interest
References
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Vehicle Types  Small Buses  Large Buses 

Bus capacity  80 pax  160 pax 
Average speed  21 km/h  19 km/h 
Acceleration speed  0.77 m/s^{2}  0.65 m/s^{2} 
Running time value per hour  50 $/vehh  63 $/vehh 
Parameter  Single Small Buses  Single Large Buses  Hybrid Vehicle Type  

Bus capacity  80 pax  160 pax  80 pax  160 pax 
Waiting time cost ($/h)  392.6  398.1  352.3  
Invehicle time cost ($/h)  1635.9  1645.2  1604.9  
Running time cost ($/h)  607.4  707.4  457.7  
Total costs ($/h)  2633.9  2750.7  2414.9  
Shortturning stops (s_{0}, s_{1})  (1, 15)  (1, 14)  (1, 15)  
Frequency of allstop fleet (veh/h)  8  5  7  
Frequency of shortturning fleet (veh/h)  5  3  4  
Load factor  0.62  0.53  0.78 
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Liang, S.; Zhang, H.; Ma, M. Design of ShortTurning Service for a Bus Route with Hybrid Vehicle Type. Symmetry 2019, 11, 1140. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11091140
Liang S, Zhang H, Ma M. Design of ShortTurning Service for a Bus Route with Hybrid Vehicle Type. Symmetry. 2019; 11(9):1140. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11091140
Chicago/Turabian StyleLiang, Shidong, Hu Zhang, and Minghui Ma. 2019. "Design of ShortTurning Service for a Bus Route with Hybrid Vehicle Type" Symmetry 11, no. 9: 1140. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11091140