Next Article in Journal
Asymptotic Semicircular Laws Induced by p-Adic Number Fields p and C*-Algebras over Primes p
Previous Article in Journal
Neutrosophic Triangular Norms and Their Derived Residuated Lattices
Previous Article in Special Issue
Patterns of Diversity of Floral Symmetry in Angiosperms: A Case Study of the Order Apiales
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Radial and Bilateral Fluctuating Asymmetry of Iris pumila Flowers as Indicators of Environmental Stress

Department of Evolutionary Biology, Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Symmetry 2019, 11(6), 818; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11060818
Received: 3 June 2019 / Revised: 17 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 June 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Floral Symmetry)
  |  
PDF [2102 KB, uploaded 26 June 2019]
  |  

Abstract

In this study we compared the biomonitoring potential of various types of flower asymmetry indices in Iris pumila (Dwarf Bearded Iris). We chose 197 naturally growing clones from the arid steppe habitat in the largest sandy area in Europe (Deliblato Sands Nature Reserve), and we transplanted two replicates of each clone to a polluted highway site with a heavy traffic flow. After a period of acclimatization, lower levels of photosynthetic pigment concentrations and higher stomatal density and specific leaf area in transplants verified that the chosen highway site was indeed more stressful and therefore suitable for estimation of the flower asymmetry biomonitoring potential. We analyzed radially and bilaterally symmetrical flower structures (radial fluctuating asymmetry (RA) and bilateral fluctuating asymmetry (FA)) on three perianth parts—falls, standards, and styles—and calculated various asymmetry indices based on linear and geometric morphometrics. Despite utilizing a heavily polluted environment and fairly large sample sizes, only one asymmetry index was significantly higher on the polluted site with demonstrated stressful effects on utilized plants, indicating that flower asymmetry was not an efficient method for biomonitoring in the case of I. pumila RA and FA indices. View Full-Text
Keywords: developmental instability; bilateral and radial fluctuating asymmetry; linear and geometric morphometrics; Iris pumila; biomonitoring developmental instability; bilateral and radial fluctuating asymmetry; linear and geometric morphometrics; Iris pumila; biomonitoring
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Barišić Klisarić, N.; Miljković, D.; Avramov, S.; Živković, U.; Tarasjev, A. Radial and Bilateral Fluctuating Asymmetry of Iris pumila Flowers as Indicators of Environmental Stress. Symmetry 2019, 11, 818.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Symmetry EISSN 2073-8994 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top