Next Article in Journal
The Local Theory for Regular Systems in the Context of t-Bonded Sets
Previous Article in Journal
Total Variation Based Neural Network Regression for Nonuniformity Correction of Infrared Images
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Symmetry 2018, 10(5), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10050158

Blast Damage Assessment of Symmetrical Box-Shaped Underground Tunnel According to Peak Particle Velocity (PPV) and Single Degree of Freedom (SDOF) Criteria

1
Smart and Sustainable Township Research Centre (SUTRA), Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600 UKM, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Centre for Innovative Architecture and Built Environment (SErAMBI), Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600 UKM, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 April 2018 / Revised: 4 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [7385 KB, uploaded 14 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

This study aimed to determine the reliability of the damage criteria that was adopted by the peak particle velocity (PPV) method and the single degree of freedom (SDOF) approach to assess the damage level of a box-shaped underground tunnel. An advanced arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) technique available in LS-DYNA software was used to simulate a symmetrical underground tunnel that was subjected to a surface detonation. The validation results of peak pressure into the soil revealed a good consistency with the TM5-855-1 manual within differences that were much less than previous numerical studies. The pressure contours revealed that the blast waves travelled into the soil in a hemispherical shape and the peak reflected the pressure of the tunnel that occurred immediately before the incident pressure reached its highest value. The assessment results proved that the criteria of the above methods could efficiently predict the damage level of a box-shaped tunnel under different circumstances of explosive charge weight and lining thickness at a depth of 4 m within slight differences that were observed during van and small delivery truck (SDT) explosions. However, the efficiency of both the methods was varied with the increase of burial depth. Whereas, using the PPV method significantly underestimated or overestimated the damage level of the tunnel, especially during SDT and container explosions with a lining thickness of 250 mm at burial depths of 6 and 8 m, respectively, the damage level that was obtained by the SDOF method greatly matched with the observed failure modes of the tunnel. Furthermore, new boundary conditions and equations were proposed for the damage criteria of the PVV method. View Full-Text
Keywords: box-shaped tunnel; blast load; ALE analysis; SDOF approach; damage levels box-shaped tunnel; blast load; ALE analysis; SDOF approach; damage levels
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mussa, M.H.; Mutalib, A.A.; Hamid, R.; Raman, S.N. Blast Damage Assessment of Symmetrical Box-Shaped Underground Tunnel According to Peak Particle Velocity (PPV) and Single Degree of Freedom (SDOF) Criteria. Symmetry 2018, 10, 158.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Symmetry EISSN 2073-8994 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top