# On the Electric-Magnetic Duality Symmetry: Quantum Anomaly, Optical Helicity, and Particle Creation

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Electric-Magnetic Duality Rotations and Self- and Anti Self-Dual Fields

## 3. Noether Symmetry and Conserved Charge

## 4. Analogy with Dirac Fermions and the Quantum Anomaly

#### 4.1. Fermions in Curved Spacetime

#### 4.2. Electrodynamics in Curved Spacetime

## 5. Discussion

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## Appendix A. Some Details Regarding the Calculation of ${\nabla}_{\mu}{j}_{A}^{\mu}$ in Curved Spacetimes

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Agulló, I.; Del Río, A.; Navarro-Salas, J.
On the Electric-Magnetic Duality Symmetry: Quantum Anomaly, Optical Helicity, and Particle Creation. *Symmetry* **2018**, *10*, 763.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10120763

**AMA Style**

Agulló I, Del Río A, Navarro-Salas J.
On the Electric-Magnetic Duality Symmetry: Quantum Anomaly, Optical Helicity, and Particle Creation. *Symmetry*. 2018; 10(12):763.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10120763

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Agulló, Iván, Adrián Del Río, and José Navarro-Salas.
2018. "On the Electric-Magnetic Duality Symmetry: Quantum Anomaly, Optical Helicity, and Particle Creation" *Symmetry* 10, no. 12: 763.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym10120763