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Antibodies, Volume 9, Issue 3 (September 2020) – 23 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Monoclonal antibody-based immunotherapy is an important component of numerous cancer treatment regimens. Monoclonal antibodies have many distinct clinical applications due to their multidimensional properties as a therapeutic platform. In order to address therapeutic resistance, an understanding of the complex mechanisms of action underlying monoclonal antibody therapy is needed. Additionally, advancements in therapeutic modalities such as immune checkpoint inhibition as well as combination therapies have proven highly effective and have opened up new areas of research. View this paper
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Article
Molecular Mechanism of HER2 Rapid Internalization and Redirected Trafficking Induced by Anti-HER2 Biparatopic Antibody
Antibodies 2020, 9(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib9030049 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2671
Abstract
Amplification and overexpression of HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2), an ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase, have been implicated in human cancer and metastasis. A bispecific tetravalent anti-HER2 antibody (anti-HER2-Bs), targeting two non-overlapping epitopes on HER2 in domain IV (trastuzumab) and domain II [...] Read more.
Amplification and overexpression of HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2), an ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase, have been implicated in human cancer and metastasis. A bispecific tetravalent anti-HER2 antibody (anti-HER2-Bs), targeting two non-overlapping epitopes on HER2 in domain IV (trastuzumab) and domain II (39S), has been reported to induce rapid internalization and efficient degradation of HER2 receptors. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of this antibody-induced rapid HER2 internalization and intracellular trafficking. Using quantitative fluorescent imaging, we compared the internalization kinetics of anti-HER2-Bs and its parental arm antibodies, alone or in combinations and under various internalization-promoting conditions. The results demonstrated that concurrent engagement of both epitopes was necessary for rapid anti-HER2-Bs internalization. Cellular uptake of anti-HER2-Bs and parental arm antibodies occurred via clathrin-dependent endocytosis; however, inside the cells antibodies directed different trafficking pathways. Trastuzumab dissociated from HER2 in 2 h, enabling the receptor to recycle, whereas anti-HER2-Bs stayed associated with the receptor throughout the entire endocytic pathway, promoting receptor ubiquitination, trafficking to the lysosomes, and efficient degradation. Consistent with routing HER2 to degradation, anti-HER2-Bs significantly reduced HER2 shedding and altered its exosomal export. Collectively, these results enable a better understanding of the mechanism of action of anti-Her2-Bs and can guide the rational design of anti-HER2 therapeutics as well as other bispecific molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibody Engineering for Cancer Immunotherapy)
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Article
Monoclonal Antibodies Generated against Glycoconjugates Recognize Chemical Linkers
Antibodies 2020, 9(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib9030048 - 15 Sep 2020
Viewed by 2675
Abstract
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize glycans are useful tools to assess carbohydrates’ structure and function. We sought to produce IgG mAbs to the human milk oligosaccharide (HMO), lacto-N-fucopentaose III (LNFPIII). LNFPIII contains the Lewisx antigen, which is found on the surface of [...] Read more.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize glycans are useful tools to assess carbohydrates’ structure and function. We sought to produce IgG mAbs to the human milk oligosaccharide (HMO), lacto-N-fucopentaose III (LNFPIII). LNFPIII contains the Lewisx antigen, which is found on the surface of schistosome parasites. mAbs binding the Lewisx antigen are well-reported in the literature, but mAbs recognizing HMO structures are rare. To generate mAbs, mice were immunized with LNFPIII-DEX (P3DEX) plus CpGs in VacSIM®, a novel vaccine/drug delivery platform. Mice were boosted with LNFPIII-HSA (P3HSA) plus CpGs in Incomplete Freund’s Adjuvant (IFA). Splenocytes from immunized mice were used to generate hybridomas and were screened against LNFPIII conjugates via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Three positive hybridomas were expanded, and one hybridoma, producing IgG and IgM antibodies, was cloned via flow cytometry. Clone F1P2H4D8D5 was selected because it produced IgG1 mAbs, but rescreening unexpectedly showed binding to both LNFPIII and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) conjugates. To further assess the specificity of the mAb, we screened it on two glycan microarrays and found no significant binding. This finding suggests that the mAb binds to the acetylphenylenediamine (APD) linker-spacer structure of the conjugate. We present the results herein, suggesting that our new mAb could be a useful probe for conjugates using similar linker spacer structures. Full article
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Review
IgE Autoreactivity in Atopic Dermatitis: Paving the Road for Autoimmune Diseases?
Antibodies 2020, 9(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib9030047 - 08 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2299
Abstract
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disease affecting 20% of the population beginning usually before one year of age. It is associated with the emergence of allergen-specific IgE, but also with autoreactive IgE, whose function remain elusive. This review discusses current knowledge [...] Read more.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disease affecting 20% of the population beginning usually before one year of age. It is associated with the emergence of allergen-specific IgE, but also with autoreactive IgE, whose function remain elusive. This review discusses current knowledge relevant to the mechanisms, which leads to the secretion of autoreactive IgE and to the potential function of these antibodies in AD. Multiple autoantigens have been described to elicit an IgE-dependent response in this context. This IgE autoimmunity starts in infancy and is associated with disease severity. Furthermore, the overall prevalence of autoreactive IgE to multiple auto-antigens is high in AD patients. IgE-antigen complexes can promote a facilitated antigen presentation, a skewing of the adaptive response toward type 2 immunity, and a chronic skin barrier dysfunction and inflammation in patients or AD models. In AD, skin barrier defects and the atopic immune environment facilitate allergen sensitization and the development of other IgE-mediated allergic diseases in a process called the atopic march. AD is also associated epidemiologically with several autoimmune diseases showing autoreactive IgE secretion. Thus, a potential outcome of IgE autoreactivity in AD could be the development of further autoimmune diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IgE in Autoimmunity)
Article
Investigating the Impact of Sample Preparation on Mass Spectrometry-Based Drug-To-Antibody Ratio Determination for Cysteine- and Lysine-Linked Antibody–Drug Conjugates
Antibodies 2020, 9(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib9030046 - 08 Sep 2020
Viewed by 2103
Abstract
Antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs) are heterogeneous biotherapeutics and differ vastly in their physicochemical properties depending on their design. The number of small drug molecules covalently attached to each antibody molecule is commonly referred to as the drug-to-antibody ratio (DAR). Established analytical protocols for mass [...] Read more.
Antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs) are heterogeneous biotherapeutics and differ vastly in their physicochemical properties depending on their design. The number of small drug molecules covalently attached to each antibody molecule is commonly referred to as the drug-to-antibody ratio (DAR). Established analytical protocols for mass spectrometry (MS)-investigation of antibodies and ADCs often require sample treatment such as desalting or interchain disulfide bond reduction prior to analysis. Herein, the impact of the desalting and reduction steps—as well as the sample concentration and elapsed time between synthesis and analysis of DAR-values (as acquired by reversed phase liquid chromatography MS (RPLC–MS))—was investigated. It was found that the apparent DAR-values could fluctuate by up to 0.6 DAR units due to changes in the sample preparation workflow. For methods involving disulfide reduction by means of dithiothreitol (DTT), an acidic quench is recommended in order to increase DAR reliability. Furthermore, the addition of a desalting step was shown to benefit the ionization efficiencies in RPLC–MS. Finally, in the case of delayed analyses, samples can be stored at four degrees Celsius for up to one week but are better stored at −20 °C for longer periods of time. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that commonly used sample preparation procedures and storage conditions themselves may impact MS-derived DAR-values, which should be taken into account when evaluating analytical procedures. Full article
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Review
How Do mAbs Make Use of Complement to Kill Cancer Cells? The Role of Ca2+
Antibodies 2020, 9(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib9030045 - 04 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2091
Abstract
We examined the kinetics and mechanisms by which monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) utilize complement to rapidly kill targeted cancer cells. Based on results from flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and high-resolution digital imaging experiments, the general patterns which have emerged reveal cytotoxic activities mediated by [...] Read more.
We examined the kinetics and mechanisms by which monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) utilize complement to rapidly kill targeted cancer cells. Based on results from flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and high-resolution digital imaging experiments, the general patterns which have emerged reveal cytotoxic activities mediated by substantial and lethal Ca2+ fluxes. The Ca2+ fluxes are common to the reported pathways that have been utilized by other toxins in killing nucleated cells. These reactions terminate in very high levels of cell killing, and based on these considerations, we suggest additional strategies to further enhance mAb-based targeting of cancer with complement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Complement in Cancer Immunotherapy)
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Review
CD47 as a Potential Target to Therapy for Infectious Diseases
Antibodies 2020, 9(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib9030044 - 01 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2740
Abstract
The integrin associated protein (CD47) is a widely and moderately expressed glycoprotein in all healthy cells. Cancer cells are known to induce increased CD47 expression. Similar to cancer cells, all immune cells can upregulate their CD47 surface expression during infection. The CD47-SIRPa interaction [...] Read more.
The integrin associated protein (CD47) is a widely and moderately expressed glycoprotein in all healthy cells. Cancer cells are known to induce increased CD47 expression. Similar to cancer cells, all immune cells can upregulate their CD47 surface expression during infection. The CD47-SIRPa interaction induces an inhibitory effect on macrophages and dendritic cells (dendritic cells) while CD47-thrombospondin-signaling inhibits T cells. Therefore, the disruption of the CD47 interaction can mediate several biologic functions. Upon the blockade and knockout of CD47 reveals an immunosuppressive effect of CD47 during LCMV, influenza virus, HIV-1, mycobacterium tuberculosis, plasmodium and other bacterial pneumonia infections. In our recent study we shows that the blockade of CD47 using the anti-CD47 antibody increases the activation and effector function of macrophages, dendritic cells and T cells during viral infection. By enhancing both innate and adaptive immunity, CD47 blocking antibody promotes antiviral effect. Due to its broad mode of action, the immune-stimulatory effect derived from this antibody could be applicable in nonresolving and (re)emerging infections. The anti-CD47 antibody is currently under clinical trial for the treatment of cancer and could also have amenable therapeutic potential against infectious diseases. This review highlights the immunotherapeutic targeted role of CD47 in the infectious disease realm. Full article
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Case Report
Severe Intraoperative Anaphylaxis Related to Thymoglobulin during Living Donor Kidney Transplantation
Antibodies 2020, 9(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib9030043 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2141
Abstract
Anaphylaxis secondary to thymoglobulin (anti-thymocyte globulin) is a rare condition that can be life threatening. Thymoglobulin is a rabbit-derived T-cell depleting polyclonal immunoglobulin. It is commonly used for induction immunosuppression and/or for treatment of acute rejection in renal transplantation. We report a case [...] Read more.
Anaphylaxis secondary to thymoglobulin (anti-thymocyte globulin) is a rare condition that can be life threatening. Thymoglobulin is a rabbit-derived T-cell depleting polyclonal immunoglobulin. It is commonly used for induction immunosuppression and/or for treatment of acute rejection in renal transplantation. We report a case of a living kidney transplant recipient who developed intraoperative anaphylactic shock secondary to thymoglobulin. The patient had a history of pet rabbit exposure. This case report highlights the importance of prompt identification and management of intraoperative anaphylaxis, which is key to a successful outcome. Induction immunosuppression selection based on patient characteristics is important. Communication between the anesthesia team and surgeons played a key role in stopping the donor surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Management of Antibodies in Transplantation)
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Case Report
The Course of SARS-COV2 Infection Was Not Severe in a Crohn’s Patient Who Administered Maintenance Anti-TNF Therapy Overlapping the Early Pre-Symptomatic Period of Infection
Antibodies 2020, 9(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib9030042 - 15 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2623
Abstract
The Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) population, which may require treatment with immunosuppressive medications, may be uniquely vulnerable to COVID-19 infection. In fact, there is some evidence these medications may inhibit the cytokine storm that is theorized to cause a rapid decline seen in [...] Read more.
The Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) population, which may require treatment with immunosuppressive medications, may be uniquely vulnerable to COVID-19 infection. In fact, there is some evidence these medications may inhibit the cytokine storm that is theorized to cause a rapid decline seen in COVID-19. In addition, the digestive symptoms of COVID-19 can be difficult to distinguish from the activation of IBD. We present an interesting case of a Crohn’s patient inadvertently administering anti-cytokine therapy during the pre-symptomatic period of COVID-19 infection. Immune suppression during early infection with SARS-COV2 risks a poor immune response to the virus and could theoretically result in a more severe course of infection. Full article
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Case Report
Solutions to Avoid False Positives for Rituximab in Pre-Transplant Crossmatches
Antibodies 2020, 9(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib9030041 - 05 Aug 2020
Viewed by 2575
Abstract
Rituximab (anti-CD20) is commonly used as immunotherapy against B cells, in the context of pre-transplant crossmatches, where the presence of rituximab in the tested sera with donor cells can alter their results both by flow cytometry (FCXM) as complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDCXM) giving rise [...] Read more.
Rituximab (anti-CD20) is commonly used as immunotherapy against B cells, in the context of pre-transplant crossmatches, where the presence of rituximab in the tested sera with donor cells can alter their results both by flow cytometry (FCXM) as complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDCXM) giving rise to false positives. In the present study, we tested the use of an anti-rituximab monoclonal antibody (10C5, Abnova) as a method to avoid false positives in FCXM and CDCXM. We used the serum from ten patients who received therapy with rituximab, and the cells were incubated with sera treated or untreated with the 10C5 clone. In previous studies, attempts have been made to control these false positives through the use of pronase, although in these cases the alteration of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) molecules has been found to be a limitation. As an alternative, we performed an assay to exclude false positives by a pre-incubation with anti-rituximab antibody (10C5) in 1:5 proportion avoiding the misinterpretation of crossmatches, particularly in patients with specific donor antibodies (DSA) without affecting the HLA molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Management of Antibodies in Transplantation)
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Communication
Prediction of Clearance of Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies and Non-Antibody Proteins in Children: Application of Allometric Scaling
Antibodies 2020, 9(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib9030040 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2332
Abstract
Allometric scaling can be used for the extrapolation of pharmacokinetic parameters from adults to children. The objective of this study was to predict clearance of therapeutic proteins (monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies and non-antibody proteins) allometrically in preterm neonates to adolescents. There were 13 [...] Read more.
Allometric scaling can be used for the extrapolation of pharmacokinetic parameters from adults to children. The objective of this study was to predict clearance of therapeutic proteins (monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies and non-antibody proteins) allometrically in preterm neonates to adolescents. There were 13 monoclonal antibodies, seven polyclonal antibodies, and nine therapeutic proteins (non-antibodies) in the study. The clearance of therapeutic proteins was predicted using the age dependent exponents (ADE) model and then compared with the observed clearance values. There were in total 29 therapeutic proteins in this study with 75 observations. The number of observations with ≤30%, ≤50%, and >50% prediction error was 60 (80%), 72 (96%), and 3 (4%), respectively. Overall, the predicted clearance values of therapeutic proteins in children was good. The allometric method proposed in this manuscript can be used to select first-in-pediatric dose of therapeutic proteins in pediatric clinical trials. Full article
Article
Optimization of Methods for the Production and Refolding of Biologically Active Disulfide Bond-Rich Antibody Fragments in Microbial Hosts
Antibodies 2020, 9(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib9030039 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2756
Abstract
Antibodies have been used for basic research, clinical diagnostics, and therapeutic applications. Escherichia coli is one of the organisms of choice for the production of recombinant antibodies. Variable antibody genes have canonical and non-canonical disulfide bonds that are formed by the oxidation of [...] Read more.
Antibodies have been used for basic research, clinical diagnostics, and therapeutic applications. Escherichia coli is one of the organisms of choice for the production of recombinant antibodies. Variable antibody genes have canonical and non-canonical disulfide bonds that are formed by the oxidation of a pair of cysteines. However, the high-level expression of an antibody is an inherent problem to the process of disulfide bond formation, ultimately leading to mispairing of cysteines which can cause misfolding and aggregation as inclusion bodies (IBs). This study demonstrated that fragment antibodies are either secreted to the periplasm as soluble proteins or expressed in the cytoplasm as insoluble inclusion bodies when expressed using engineered bacterial host strains with optimal culture conditions. It was observed that moderate-solubilization and an in vitro matrix that associated refolding strategies with redox pairing more correctly folded, structured, and yielded functionally active antibody fragments than the one achieved by a direct dilution method in the absence of a redox pair. However, natural antibodies have canonical and non-canonical disulfide bonds that need a more elaborate refolding process in the presence of optimal concentrations of chaotropic denaturants and redox agents to obtain correctly folded disulfide bonds and high yield antibodies that retain biological activity. Full article
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Perspective
Is the Host Viral Response and the Immunogenicity of Vaccines Altered in Pregnancy?
Antibodies 2020, 9(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib9030038 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2896
Abstract
The intricacy of the maternal immune system arises from its ability to prevent a maternal immune response against a semi-allogenic fetus, while protecting the mother against harmful pathogens. However, these immunological adaptations may also make pregnant women vulnerable to developing adverse complications from [...] Read more.
The intricacy of the maternal immune system arises from its ability to prevent a maternal immune response against a semi-allogenic fetus, while protecting the mother against harmful pathogens. However, these immunological adaptations may also make pregnant women vulnerable to developing adverse complications from respiratory viral infections. While the influenza and SARS pandemics support this theory, there is less certainty regarding the clinical impact of SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy. In the current COVID-19 pandemic, vaccine development is key to public preventative strategies. Whilst most viral vaccines are able to induce a seroprotective antibody response, in some high-risk individuals this may not correlate with clinical protection. Some studies have shown that factors such as age, gender, and chronic illnesses can reduce their effectiveness and in this review, we discuss how pregnancy may affect the efficacy and immunogenicity of vaccines. We present literature to support the hypothesis that pregnant women are more susceptible to respiratory viral infections and may not respond to vaccines as effectively. In particular, we focus on the clinical implications of important respiratory viral infections such as influenza during pregnancy, and the pregnancy induced alterations in important leukocytes such as TFH, cTFH and B cells, which play an important role in generating long-lasting and high-affinity antibodies. Finally, we review how this may affect the efficacy of vaccines against influenza in pregnancy and highlight areas that require further research. Full article
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Article
Binding Sites of Anti-Lcr V Monoclonal Antibodies Are More Critical than the Avidities and Affinities for Passive Protection against Yersinia pestis Infection in a Bubonic Plague Model
Antibodies 2020, 9(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib9030037 - 03 Aug 2020
Viewed by 2062
Abstract
Plague is a zoonotic disease that is caused by Yersinia pestis. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to the V-antigen, a virulence factor that is produced by Y. pestis, can passively protect mice from plague. An analysis of protective mAbs that bind [...] Read more.
Plague is a zoonotic disease that is caused by Yersinia pestis. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to the V-antigen, a virulence factor that is produced by Y. pestis, can passively protect mice from plague. An analysis of protective mAbs that bind to V-antigen was made to assess binding sites, avidities, and affinities. Anti-V mAbs were screened for their efficacy in a murine model of plague. Antigen-binding sites of protective V mAbs were determined with a linear peptide library, V-antigen fragment, competitive binding, and surface plasmon resonance. The avidities to the V-antigen was determined by ELISA, and affinities of the mAbs to the V-antigen were determined by surface plasmon resonance. The most protective mAb 7.3 bound to a unique conformational site on the V-antigen, while a less protective mAb bound to a different conformational site located on the same V-antigen fragment as mAb 7.3. The avidity of mAb 7.3 for the V-antigen was neither the strongest overall nor did it have the highest affinity for the V-antigen. The binding site of the most protective mAb was critical in its ability to protect against a lethal plague challenge. Full article
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Article
Characterization of Co-Formulated High-Concentration Broadly Neutralizing Anti-HIV-1 Monoclonal Antibodies for Subcutaneous Administration
Antibodies 2020, 9(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib9030036 - 29 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2806
Abstract
The discovery of numerous potent and broad neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein has invigorated the potential of using them as an effective preventative and therapeutic agent. The majority of the anti-HIV-1 antibodies, currently under clinical investigation, [...] Read more.
The discovery of numerous potent and broad neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein has invigorated the potential of using them as an effective preventative and therapeutic agent. The majority of the anti-HIV-1 antibodies, currently under clinical investigation, are formulated singly for intra-venous (IV) infusion. However, due to the high degree of genetic variability in the case of HIV-1, a single broad neutralizing antibody will likely not be sufficient to protect against the broad range of viral isolates. To that end, delivery of two or more co-formulated bnAbs against HIV-1 in a single subcutaneous (SC) injection is highly desired. We, therefore, co-formulated two anti-HIV bnAbs, 3BNC117-LS and 10-1074-LS, to a total concentration of 150 mg/mL for SC administration and analyzed them using a panel of analytical techniques. Chromatographic based methods, such as RP-HPLC, CEX-HPLC, SEC-HPLC, were developed to ensure separation and detection of each antibody in the co-formulated sample. In addition, we used a panel of diverse pseudoviruses to detect the functionality of individual antibodies in the co-formulation. We also used these methods to test the stability of the co-formulated antibodies and believe that such an approach can support future efforts towards the formulation and characterization of multiple high-concentration antibodies for SC delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monoclonal Antibody-Directed Therapy)
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Review
Antibodies Inhibiting the Type III Secretion System of Gram-Negative Pathogenic Bacteria
Antibodies 2020, 9(3), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib9030035 - 27 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3396
Abstract
Pathogenic bacteria are a global health threat, with over 2 million infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria every year in the United States. This problem is exacerbated by the increase in resistance to common antibiotics that are routinely used to treat these infections, creating [...] Read more.
Pathogenic bacteria are a global health threat, with over 2 million infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria every year in the United States. This problem is exacerbated by the increase in resistance to common antibiotics that are routinely used to treat these infections, creating an urgent need for innovative ways to treat and prevent virulence caused by these pathogens. Many Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria use a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject toxins and other effector proteins directly into host cells. The T3SS has become a popular anti-virulence target because it is required for pathogenesis and knockouts have attenuated virulence. It is also not required for survival, which should result in less selective pressure for resistance formation against T3SS inhibitors. In this review, we will highlight selected examples of direct antibody immunizations and the use of antibodies in immunotherapy treatments that target the bacterial T3SS. These examples include antibodies targeting the T3SS of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Yersinia pestis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., and Chlamydia trachomatis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monoclonal Antibody-Directed Therapy)
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Review
Monoclonal Antibodies in Cancer Therapy
Antibodies 2020, 9(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib9030034 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 5347
Abstract
Monoclonal antibody-based immunotherapy is now considered to be a main component of cancer therapy, alongside surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Monoclonal antibodies possess a diverse set of clinically relevant mechanisms of action. In addition, antibodies can directly target tumor cells while simultaneously promoting the [...] Read more.
Monoclonal antibody-based immunotherapy is now considered to be a main component of cancer therapy, alongside surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Monoclonal antibodies possess a diverse set of clinically relevant mechanisms of action. In addition, antibodies can directly target tumor cells while simultaneously promoting the induction of long-lasting anti-tumor immune responses. The multifaceted properties of antibodies as a therapeutic platform have led to the development of new cancer treatment strategies that will have major impacts on cancer care. This review focuses on the known mechanisms of action, current clinical applications for the treatment of cancer, and mechanisms of resistance of monoclonal antibody therapy. We further discuss how monoclonal antibody-based strategies have moved towards enhancing anti-tumor immune responses by targeting immune cells instead of tumor antigens as well as some of the current combination therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibody Engineering for Cancer Immunotherapy)
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Article
From Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Immune Responses to COVID-19 via Molecular Mimicry
Antibodies 2020, 9(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib9030033 - 16 Jul 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 5669
Abstract
Aim: To define the autoimmune potential of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Methods: Experimentally validated epitopes cataloged at the Immune Epitope DataBase (IEDB) and present in SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed for peptide sharing with the human proteome. Results: Immunoreactive epitopes present [...] Read more.
Aim: To define the autoimmune potential of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Methods: Experimentally validated epitopes cataloged at the Immune Epitope DataBase (IEDB) and present in SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed for peptide sharing with the human proteome. Results: Immunoreactive epitopes present in SARS-CoV-2 were mostly composed of peptide sequences present in human proteins that—when altered, mutated, deficient or, however, improperly functioning—may associate with a wide range of disorders, from respiratory distress to multiple organ failure. Conclusions: This study represents a starting point or hint for future scientific–clinical investigations and suggests a range of possible protein targets of autoimmunity in SARS-CoV-2 infection. From an experimental perspective, the results warrant the testing of patients’ sera for autoantibodies against these protein targets. Clinically, the results warrant a stringent surveillance on the future pathologic sequelae of the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Full article
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Review
Improving Receptor-Mediated Intracellular Access and Accumulation of Antibody Therapeutics—The Tale of HER2
Antibodies 2020, 9(3), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib9030032 - 13 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2612
Abstract
Therapeutic anti-HER2 antibodies and antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs) have undoubtedly benefitted patients. Nonetheless, patients ultimately relapse—some sooner than others. Currently approved anti-HER2 drugs are expensive and their cost-effectiveness is debated. There is increased awareness that internalization and lysosomal processing including subsequent payload intracellular accumulation [...] Read more.
Therapeutic anti-HER2 antibodies and antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs) have undoubtedly benefitted patients. Nonetheless, patients ultimately relapse—some sooner than others. Currently approved anti-HER2 drugs are expensive and their cost-effectiveness is debated. There is increased awareness that internalization and lysosomal processing including subsequent payload intracellular accumulation and retention for ADCs are critical therapeutic attributes. Although HER2 preferential overexpression on the surface of tumor cells is attractive, its poor internalization and trafficking to lysosomes has been linked to poor therapeutic outcomes. To help address such issues, this review will comprehensively detail the most relevant findings on internalization and cellular accumulation for approved and investigational anti-HER2 antibodies and ADCs. The improved clarity of the HER2 system could improve antibody and ADC designs and approaches for next-generation anti-HER2 and other receptor targeting agents. Full article
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Article
Identification of Specific IgE Antibodies and Asthma Control Interaction and Association Using Cluster Analysis in a Bulgarian Asthmatic Children Cohort
Antibodies 2020, 9(3), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib9030031 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 2016
Abstract
(1) Background: Asthma is a complex heterogeneous disease that likely comprises several distinct disease phenotypes, where the clustering approach has been used to classify the heterogeneous asthma population into distinct phenotypes; (2) Methods: For a period of 1 year, we evaluated medical history [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Asthma is a complex heterogeneous disease that likely comprises several distinct disease phenotypes, where the clustering approach has been used to classify the heterogeneous asthma population into distinct phenotypes; (2) Methods: For a period of 1 year, we evaluated medical history data of 71 children with asthma aged 3 to 17 years, performing pulmonary function tests, drew blood for IgE antibodies against inhalation and food allergies detection, and Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ); (3) Results: Five distinct phenotypes were determined. Cluster 1 (n = 10): (non-atopic) the lowest IgE level, very low ACQ, and median age of diagnosis. Cluster 2 (n = 28): (mixed) the highest Body mass index (BMI) with the latest age of diagnosis and high ACQ and bronchodilator response (BDR) levels and median and IgE levels. Cluster 3 (n = 19) (atopic) early diagnosis, highest BDR, highest ACQ score, highest total, and high specific IgE levels among the clusters. Cluster 4 (n = 9): (atopic) the highest specific IgE result, relatively high BMI, and IgE with median ACQ score among clusters. Cluster 5 (n = 5): (non-atopic) the earliest age for diagnosis, with the lowest BMI, the lowest ACQ score, and specific IgE levels, with high BDR and the median level of IgE among clusters; (4) Conclusions: We identified asthma phenotypes in Bulgarian children according to IgE levels, ACQ score, BDR, and age of diagnosis. Full article
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Article
CD1d Selectively Down Regulates the Expression of the Oxidized Phospholipid-Specific E06 IgM Natural Antibody in Ldlr−/− Mice
Antibodies 2020, 9(3), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib9030030 - 03 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2208
Abstract
Natural antibodies (NAbs) are important regulators of tissue homeostasis and inflammation and are thought to have diverse protective roles in a variety of pathological states. E06 is a T15 idiotype IgM NAb exclusively produced by B-1 cells, which recognizes the phosphocholine (PC) head [...] Read more.
Natural antibodies (NAbs) are important regulators of tissue homeostasis and inflammation and are thought to have diverse protective roles in a variety of pathological states. E06 is a T15 idiotype IgM NAb exclusively produced by B-1 cells, which recognizes the phosphocholine (PC) head group in oxidized phospholipids on the surface of apoptotic cells and in oxidized LDL (OxLDL), and the PC present on the cell wall of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Here we report that titers of the E06 NAb are selectively increased several-fold in Cd1d-deficient mice, whereas total IgM and IgM antibodies recognizing other oxidation specific epitopes such as in malondialdehyde-modified LDL (MDA-LDL) and OxLDL were not increased. The high titers of E06 in Cd1d-deficient mice are not due to a global increase in IgM-secreting B-1 cells, but they are specifically due to an expansion of E06-secreting splenic B-1 cells. Thus, CD1d-mediated regulation appeared to be suppressive in nature and specific for E06 IgM-secreting cells. The CD1d-mediated regulation of the E06 NAb generation is a novel mechanism that regulates the production of this specific oxidation epitope recognizing NAb. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New, Old, and Shared Antibody Specificities in Autoimmune Diseases)
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Article
Rapid Isolation of Rare Isotype-Switched Hybridoma Variants: Application to the Generation of IgG2a and IgG2b MAb to CD63, a Late Endosome and Exosome Marker
Antibodies 2020, 9(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib9030029 - 02 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2483
Abstract
CD63, a member of the tetraspanin superfamily, is used as a marker of late endosomes and lysosome-related organelles, as well as a marker of exosomes. Here, we selected rare isotype variants of TS63 by sorting hybridoma cells on the basis of their high [...] Read more.
CD63, a member of the tetraspanin superfamily, is used as a marker of late endosomes and lysosome-related organelles, as well as a marker of exosomes. Here, we selected rare isotype variants of TS63 by sorting hybridoma cells on the basis of their high expression of surface immunoglobulins of the IgG2a and IgG2b subclass. Pure populations of cells secreting IgG2a and IgG2b variants of TS63 (referred to as TS63a and TS63b) were obtained using two rounds of cell sorting and one limited dilution cloning step. We validate that these new TS63 variants are suitable for co-labeling with mAb of the IgG1 subclass directed to other molecules, using anti mouse subclass antibodies, and for the labeling of exosomes through direct binding to protein A-coated gold particles. These mAbs will be useful to study the intracellular localization of various proteins and facilitate electron microscopy analysis of CD63 localization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibody Engineering for Cancer Immunotherapy)
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Review
Ribosome Display Technology: Applications in Disease Diagnosis and Control
Antibodies 2020, 9(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib9030028 - 27 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2810
Abstract
Antibody ribosome display remains one of the most successful in vitro selection technologies for antibodies fifteen years after it was developed. The unique possibility of direct generation of whole proteins, particularly single-chain antibody fragments (scFvs), has facilitated the establishment of this technology as [...] Read more.
Antibody ribosome display remains one of the most successful in vitro selection technologies for antibodies fifteen years after it was developed. The unique possibility of direct generation of whole proteins, particularly single-chain antibody fragments (scFvs), has facilitated the establishment of this technology as one of the foremost antibody production methods. Ribosome display has become a vital tool for efficient and low-cost production of antibodies for diagnostics due to its advantageous ability to screen large libraries and generate binders of high affinity. The remarkable flexibility of this method enables its applicability to various platforms. This review focuses on the applications of ribosome display technology in biomedical and agricultural fields in the generation of recombinant scFvs for disease diagnostics and control. Full article
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Article
Expression of DOCK9 and DOCK11 Analyzed with Commercial Antibodies: Focus on Regulation of Mutually Exclusive First Exon Isoforms
Antibodies 2020, 9(3), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib9030027 - 27 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2010
Abstract
Dedicators of cytokinesis 9 and 11 (DOCK9 and DOCK11) are members of the dedicator of cytokinesis protein family encoding the guanosine nucleotide exchange factors for Rho GTPases. Together with DOCK10, they constitute the DOCK-D or Zizimin subfamily. Two alternative full-length amino terminal isoforms [...] Read more.
Dedicators of cytokinesis 9 and 11 (DOCK9 and DOCK11) are members of the dedicator of cytokinesis protein family encoding the guanosine nucleotide exchange factors for Rho GTPases. Together with DOCK10, they constitute the DOCK-D or Zizimin subfamily. Two alternative full-length amino terminal isoforms of DOCK9 are known, which we will call DOCK9.1 and DOCK9.2. In order to investigate the relevance of the presence of the alternative first exon isoforms within this family, and to lay the groundwork for future studies that seek to investigate their potential role as biomarkers of disease, the expression levels of DOCK9 and DOCK11 were measured by qRT-PCR in 26 human tissues and 23 human cell lines, and by Western blot analysis, using commercial antibodies in cell lines. DOCK9.1 and DOCK9.2 were widely distributed. High levels of expression of both isoforms were found in the lungs, placenta, uterus, and thyroid gland. However, only DOCK9.1 was significantly expressed in the neural and hematopoietic tissues. The unique first exon form of DOCK11 was highly expressed in hematopoietic tissues, such as the peripheral blood leukocytes, spleen, thymus, or bone marrow, and in others such as the lungs, placenta, uterus, or thyroid gland. In contrast to tissues, the expression of DOCK9.1 and DOCK9.2 differed from one another and also from total DOCK9 in cell lines, suggesting that the amino terminal isoforms of DOCK9 may be differentially regulated. This study demonstrates the usefulness of antibodies in investigating the regulation of the expression of DOCK9.1, total DOCK9, and DOCK11. Full article
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