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B Cell Tolerance in Health and Disease

1
Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
2
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
3
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics and Markey Cancer Research Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antibodies 2014, 3(1), 116-129; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib3010116
Received: 21 November 2013 / Revised: 11 February 2014 / Accepted: 13 February 2014 / Published: 19 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue B Cells and Immunological Tolerance)
B lymphocyte receptors are generated randomly during the bone marrow developmental phase of B cells. Hence, the B cell repertoire consists of both self and foreign antigen specificities necessitating specific tolerance mechanisms to eliminate self-reactive B cells. This review summarizes the major mechanisms of B cell tolerance, which include clonal deletion, anergy and receptor editing. In the bone marrow presentation of antigen in membrane bound form is more effective than soluble form and the role of dendritic cells in this process is discussed. Toll like receptor derived signals affect activation of B cells by certain ligands such as nucleic acids and have been shown to play crucial roles in the development of autoimmunity in several animal models. In the periphery availability of BAFF, a B cell survival factor plays a critical role in the survival of self-reactive B cells. Antibodies against BAFF have been found to be effective therapeutic agents in lupus like autoimmune diseases. Recent developments are targeting anergy to control the growth of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: B cells; tolerance; Toll-like receptors; B-1 B cells; autoimmunity B cells; tolerance; Toll-like receptors; B-1 B cells; autoimmunity
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Gururajan, M.; Sindhava, V.J.; Bondada, S. B Cell Tolerance in Health and Disease. Antibodies 2014, 3, 116-129.

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