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Open AccessArticle

Effect of COD:SO4 2− Ratio, HRT and Linoleic Acid Concentration on Mesophilic Sulfate Reduction: Reactor Performance and Microbial Population Dynamics

1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Ave., Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
2
Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Ave., Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
3
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Ave., Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305343, Korea.
Current address: Central University of Gujarat, School of Environment and Sustainable Development, Sector-30, Gandhinagar 382030, India.
Academic Editor: Say-Leong Ong
Water 2015, 7(5), 2275-2292; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7052275
Received: 11 February 2015 / Revised: 7 May 2015 / Accepted: 7 May 2015 / Published: 18 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Control and Management)
Biological sulfate (SO42−) reduction was examined in anaerobic sequential batch reactors (ASBRs) operated under different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) ranging from 12 to 36 h and COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand)/SO42−) ratios of 2.4, 1.6 and 0.8. Competition between SO42− reducing bacteria (SRBs), methane producing archaea (MPAs) and homoacetogens (HACs) was examined in controls and cultures treated with linoleic acid (LA). The ASBR performance was influenced by the COD/SO42− ratio in control cultures with a SO42− reduction of 87% at a COD/SO42− ratio of 0.8. At a 12 h HRT, in both control and LA treated cultures, greater than 75% SO42− removal was observed under all the conditions examined. In control reactors operating at a 36 h HRT, high levels of MPAs belonging to Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales were detected; however, in comparison, under low COD/SO42− ratio and with decreasing HRT conditions, a relative increase in SRBs belonging to Desulfovibrio and Desulfatibacillum was observed. Adding 0.5 g·L−1 LA suppressed Methanobacteriales, while increasing the LA concentration to 1 g·L−1 completely suppressed MPAs with a relative increase in SRBs. HACs belonging to Bacteroidetes were observed in the control and in cultures operated at 12 h HRT with a COD/SO42− ratio of 1.6 and fed 0.5 g·L−1 LA; however, with all other LA levels (0.5 and 1.0 g·L−1) and HRTs (12, 24 and 36 h), HACs were not detected. View Full-Text
Keywords: sulfate reduction; sulfate reducing bacteria; methanogens; anaerobic sequencing batch reactor; COD/SO42− ratio sulfate reduction; sulfate reducing bacteria; methanogens; anaerobic sequencing batch reactor; COD/SO42− ratio
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Moon, C.; Singh, R.; Veeravalli, S.S.; Shanmugam, S.R.; Chaganti, S.R.; Lalman, J.A.; Heath, D.D. Effect of COD:SO4 2− Ratio, HRT and Linoleic Acid Concentration on Mesophilic Sulfate Reduction: Reactor Performance and Microbial Population Dynamics. Water 2015, 7, 2275-2292.

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