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Article

Removal of Pharmaceuticals, Toxicity and Natural Fluorescence by Ozonation in Biologically Pre-Treated Municipal Wastewater, in Comparison to Subsequent Polishing Biofilm Reactors

1
Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
2
Water Aps, Gydevej 64, 3520 Farum, Denmark
3
Veolia Water Technologies, Haslegårdsvænger 18, 8210 Århus V, Denmark
4
Air Liquid, Deutschland GmbH Dormagen Chempark E65, 50769 Köln, Germany
5
Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Danish Technological Institute, Kongsvang Allé 29, DK-8000 Århus C, Denmark
6
Environmental Science, Århus University, Frederiksborgsvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(4), 1059; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041059
Received: 23 March 2020 / Revised: 4 April 2020 / Accepted: 4 April 2020 / Published: 8 April 2020
Ozonation followed by a polishing moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was implemented in pilot and laboratory to remove the residual pharmaceuticals and toxicity from wastewater effluent, which was from a pilot hybrid system of MBBR and activated sludge, receiving municipal wastewater. The delivered ozone dosages achieving 90% pharmaceutical removal were determined both in pilot and laboratory experiments and they were normalised to dissolved organic carbon (DOC), illustrating our findings were comparable with previously published literature. During wastewater ozonation, the intensity of natural fluorescence was found to be greatly associated with the concentrations of the studied pharmaceuticals. In pilot experiments, toxicity, measured by Vibrio fischeri, increased after ozonation at delivered ozone dosages at 0.38–0.47 mg O3/mg DOC and was completely removed by the subsequent polishing MBBR. Laboratory experiments verified that the polishing MBBR was able to remove the toxicity produced by the ozonation. View Full-Text
Keywords: municipal wastewater; ozonation; toxicity; fluorescence; pharmaceuticals municipal wastewater; ozonation; toxicity; fluorescence; pharmaceuticals
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tang, K.; Ooi, G.T.H.; Spiliotopoulou, A.; Kaarsholm, K.M.S.; Sundmark, K.; Florian, B.; Kragelund, C.; Bester, K.; Andersen, H.R. Removal of Pharmaceuticals, Toxicity and Natural Fluorescence by Ozonation in Biologically Pre-Treated Municipal Wastewater, in Comparison to Subsequent Polishing Biofilm Reactors. Water 2020, 12, 1059. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041059

AMA Style

Tang K, Ooi GTH, Spiliotopoulou A, Kaarsholm KMS, Sundmark K, Florian B, Kragelund C, Bester K, Andersen HR. Removal of Pharmaceuticals, Toxicity and Natural Fluorescence by Ozonation in Biologically Pre-Treated Municipal Wastewater, in Comparison to Subsequent Polishing Biofilm Reactors. Water. 2020; 12(4):1059. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041059

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tang, Kai, Gordon T.H. Ooi, Aikaterini Spiliotopoulou, Kamilla M.S. Kaarsholm, Kim Sundmark, Bianca Florian, Caroline Kragelund, Kai Bester, and Henrik R. Andersen 2020. "Removal of Pharmaceuticals, Toxicity and Natural Fluorescence by Ozonation in Biologically Pre-Treated Municipal Wastewater, in Comparison to Subsequent Polishing Biofilm Reactors" Water 12, no. 4: 1059. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041059

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