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Open AccessArticle

Statistical Evaluation of the Latest GPM-Era IMERG and GSMaP Satellite Precipitation Products in the Yellow River Source Region

State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, 1 Xikang Road, Nanjing 210098, China
National Meteorological Information Center, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100081, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(4), 1006;
Received: 24 January 2020 / Revised: 19 March 2020 / Accepted: 26 March 2020 / Published: 1 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Remote Sensing and GIS in Hydrology II)
As the successor of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) has released a range of satellite-based precipitation products (SPPs). This study conducts a comparative analysis on the quality of the integrated multisatellite retrievals for GPM (IMERG) and global satellite mapping of precipitation (GSMaP) SPPs in the Yellow River source region (YRSR). This research includes the eight latest GPM-era SPPs, namely, IMERG “Early,” “Late,” and “Final” run SPPs (IMERG-E, IMERG-L, and IMERG-F) and GSMaP gauge-adjusted product (GSMaP-Gauge), microwave-infrared reanalyzed product (GSMaP-MVK), near-real-time product (GSMaP-NRT), near-real-time product with gauge-based adjustment (GSMaP-Gauge-NRT), and real-time product (GSMaP-NOW). In addition, the IMERG SPPs were compared with GSMaP SPPs at multiple spatiotemporal scales. Results indicate that among the three IMERG SPPs, IMERG-F exhibited the lowest systematic errors and the best quality, followed by IMERG-E and IMERG-L. IMERG-E and IMERG-L underestimated the occurrences of light-rain events but overestimated the moderate and heavy rain events. For GSMaP SPPs, GSMaP-Gauge presented the best performance in terms of various statistical metrics, followed by GSMaP-Gauge-NRT. GSMaP-MVK and GSMaP-NRT remarkably overestimated total precipitation, and GSMaP-NOW showed an evident underestimation. By comparing the performances of IMERG and GSMaP SPPs, GSMaP-Gauge-NRT provided the best precipitation estimates among all real-time and near-real-time SPPs. For post-real-time SPPs, GSMaP-Gauge presented the highest capability at the daily scale, and IMERG-F slightly outperformed the other SPPs at the monthly scale. This study is one of the earliest studies focusing on the quality of the latest IMERG and GSMaP SPPs. The findings of this study provide SPP developers with valuable information on the quality of the latest GPM-era SPPs in YRSR and help SPP researchers to refine the precipitation retrieving algorithms to improve the applicability of SPPs. View Full-Text
Keywords: GPM; IMERG; GSMaP; satellite precipitation GPM; IMERG; GSMaP; satellite precipitation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shi, J.; Yuan, F.; Shi, C.; Zhao, C.; Zhang, L.; Ren, L.; Zhu, Y.; Jiang, S.; Liu, Y. Statistical Evaluation of the Latest GPM-Era IMERG and GSMaP Satellite Precipitation Products in the Yellow River Source Region. Water 2020, 12, 1006.

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