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Open AccessArticle

Exploring Proper Spacing Threshold of Non-Submerged Spur Dikes with Ipsilateral Layout

1
Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Colledge of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
2
Teaching Center, Zhejiang Open University, Hangzhou 310012, China
3
Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(1), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010172 (registering DOI)
Received: 25 November 2019 / Revised: 17 December 2019 / Accepted: 30 December 2019 / Published: 7 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Urban Water Services)
Concerning the clustering of spur dikes on river systems, the spacing thresholds of twin spur dikes are important parameters to influence the estimations on the impact scales of spur dike groups and the overall responses of river systems. In this study, both numerical investigations and experimental measurements are proceeded to quantify the influence of the spacing threshold of non-submerged twin spur dikes with ipsilateral and orthogonal layout in a straight rectangular channel. Through dimensional analysis, three normalized indices, i.e., Froude number Fr, ratios of channel width to dike length B/b, and ratios of channel width to water depth B/h are identified as the main influencing factors of the relative spacing threshold Sc/b, i.e., dike spacing threshold to dike length. The simulation results indicate that the similarity of mean velocity along the water depth nearby the tips of twin spur dikes is determined by the criterion of the spacing threshold of non-submerged twin spur dikes with ipsilateral and orthogonal layout in straight rectangular channel. The results also show that: Fr plays the least impact among the three influencing factors; with the fixed values of Fr and B/h, the relative threshold Sc/b sharply increases first and then decreases slightly as B/b factor increases, with which the relationship presents approximately convex quadratic function; while both Fr and B/b are fixing, the Sc/b changes oppositely, i.e., slightly increasing first and then sharply decreasing as B/h increases, which, again presents a convex quadratic function. Hence, the normalized empirical formula of spacing threshold can be deduced by multivariate regressions and verified by the corresponding measurements in good agreements. Such empirical formula further suggests that the reasonable spacing threshold ranges from 24b to 130b, which is wider than the recovery area scales found in literature. The outputs of this study provide foundation for the characterization of impact scales of spur dike groups. View Full-Text
Keywords: twin spur dikes; spacing threshold; impact scale; empirical formula; river system twin spur dikes; spacing threshold; impact scale; empirical formula; river system
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gu, Z.; Cao, X.; Gu, Q.; Lu, W.-Z. Exploring Proper Spacing Threshold of Non-Submerged Spur Dikes with Ipsilateral Layout. Water 2020, 12, 172.

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