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Article

Flood Monitoring in Vegetated Areas Using Multitemporal Sentinel-1 Data: Impact of Time Series Features

1
Department of Geography, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Luisenstr. 37, Munich 80333, Germany
2
German Aerospace Center (DLR), German Remote Sensing Data Center (DFD), Oberpfaffenhofen, 82234 Wessling, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(9), 1938; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091938
Received: 10 July 2019 / Revised: 11 September 2019 / Accepted: 12 September 2019 / Published: 18 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improving Flood Detection and Monitoring through Remote Sensing)
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is particularly suitable for large-scale mapping of inundations, as this tool allows data acquisition regardless of illumination and weather conditions. Precise information about the flood extent is an essential foundation for local relief workers, decision-makers from crisis management authorities or insurance companies. In order to capture the full extent of the flood, open water and especially temporary flooded vegetation (TFV) areas have to be considered. The Sentinel-1 (S-1) satellite constellation enables the continuous monitoring of the earths surface with a short revisit time. In particular, the ability of S-1 data to penetrate the vegetation provides information about water areas underneath the vegetation. Different TFV types, such as high grassland/reed and forested areas, from independent study areas were analyzed to show both the potential and limitations of a developed SAR time series classification approach using S-1 data. In particular, the time series feature that would be most suitable for the extraction of the TFV for all study areas was investigated in order to demonstrate the potential of the time series approaches for transferability and thus for operational use. It is shown that the result is strongly influenced by the TFV type and by other environmental conditions. A quantitative evaluation of the generated inundation maps for the individual study areas is carried out by optical imagery. It shows that analyzed study areas have obtained Producer’s/User’s accuracy values for TFV between 28% and 90%/77% and 97% for pixel-based classification and between 6% and 91%/74% and 92% for object-based classification depending on the time series feature used. The analysis of the transferability for the time series approach showed that the time series feature based on VV (vertical/vertical) polarization is particularly suitable for deriving TFV types for different study areas and based on pixel elements is recommended for operational use. View Full-Text
Keywords: flood mapping; temporary flooded vegetation (TFV); Sentinel-1; time series data; Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) flood mapping; temporary flooded vegetation (TFV); Sentinel-1; time series data; Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tsyganskaya, V.; Martinis, S.; Marzahn, P. Flood Monitoring in Vegetated Areas Using Multitemporal Sentinel-1 Data: Impact of Time Series Features. Water 2019, 11, 1938. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091938

AMA Style

Tsyganskaya V, Martinis S, Marzahn P. Flood Monitoring in Vegetated Areas Using Multitemporal Sentinel-1 Data: Impact of Time Series Features. Water. 2019; 11(9):1938. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091938

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tsyganskaya, Viktoriya, Sandro Martinis, and Philip Marzahn. 2019. "Flood Monitoring in Vegetated Areas Using Multitemporal Sentinel-1 Data: Impact of Time Series Features" Water 11, no. 9: 1938. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091938

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