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Response Analysis of Multi-Layered Volcanic Aquifers in Jeju Island to the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

1
Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, 124 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34132, Korea
2
Department of Geological Sciences, Pusan National University, 2 Busandaehak-ro, 63 beon-gil, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 46241, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(5), 942; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11050942
Received: 7 February 2019 / Revised: 16 April 2019 / Accepted: 1 May 2019 / Published: 5 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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Abstract

Seismic waves caused by earthquakes can lead to the movement of fresh groundwater and saltwater in coastal aquifers. The groundwater level, temperature, and electrical conductivity in coastal monitoring wells on the volcanic island of Jeju all responded to the 2011 M 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. As a result of the earthquake, groundwater temperature and electrical conductivity patterns demonstrated freshwater outflow and saltwater inflow through the monitoring wells in multi-layered coastal aquifers. The seismicity also affected the behavior of ocean tides occurring at depth along the multi-layered coastal aquifers. These observations prove that the use of multi-depth systems for monitoring groundwater level, temperature, and electrical conductivity are more effective than single monitoring systems for understanding the exact behavior of multi-layered aquifers as well as efficiently detecting earthquake-induced or anthropogenic impacts on aquifers in coastal, karstic, or volcanic areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: Tohoku-Oki earthquake; multi-layered coastal aquifer; multi-depth system; seismic waves; volcanic island Tohoku-Oki earthquake; multi-layered coastal aquifer; multi-depth system; seismic waves; volcanic island
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Won, B.; Hamm, S.-Y.; Kim, K.-Y.; Ha, K.; Shin, J.; Hwang, S.; Lee, S.-H. Response Analysis of Multi-Layered Volcanic Aquifers in Jeju Island to the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake. Water 2019, 11, 942.

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