Next Article in Journal
Combing Random Forest and Least Square Support Vector Regression for Improving Extreme Rainfall Downscaling
Next Article in Special Issue
The Application of Multi-Criteria Analysis Methods for the Determination of Priorities in the Implementation of Irrigation Plans
Previous Article in Journal
Assessment of Agricultural Water Resources Sustainability in Arid Regions Using Virtual Water Concept: Case of South Khorasan Province, Iran
Previous Article in Special Issue
Synergistic Approach of Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques for Flash-Flood Monitoring and Damage Assessment in Thessaly Plain Area, Greece
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Sustainability Analysis of Alternative Long-Term Management Strategies for Water Supply Systems: A Case Study in Reggio Emilia (Italy)

1
Department of Civil, Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering (DICAM), University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 2, 40136 Bologna, Italy
2
IRETI S.p.A., Via Nubi di Magellano 30, 42123 Reggio Emilia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(3), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11030450
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 26 February 2019 / Published: 3 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insights on the Water–Energy–Food Nexus)
  |  
PDF [8676 KB, uploaded 3 March 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Increasing urban water demand and water stress conditions due to population growth, combined with climate change and a non-uniform distribution of water resources in space and time, represent major concerns for water companies. As such, long-term management strategies need to improve the resilience of water supply systems and account for the sustainability of water withdrawals. In this context, metabolic modelling may provide a support to decision-making in the medium-long term, based on sustainability criteria. This approach enables mimicking a water supply network (WSN) based on a set of material and energy fluxes that interact and influence each other. By analyzing these fluxes, a suite of key performance indicators (KPIs) is evaluated in order to identify which kind of interventions may be applied to increase the sustainability of the system. Here, we apply a metabolic model, WaterMet2, to a WSN in the Reggio Emilia Province (Italy), combined with hydraulic simulations conducted with EPANET. Different alternative strategies are compared, including a reduction of water withdrawals from the main well field due to a possible future decrease in water availability. Based on KPIs, sustainable long-term strategies are evaluated in order to identify the most suitable solution for dynamic sustainable management of the water supply system. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainability; metabolic modelling; KPIs; urban water system; resilience; water supply network sustainability; metabolic modelling; KPIs; urban water system; resilience; water supply network
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Felisa, G.; Lauriola, I.; Pedrazzoli, P.; Di Federico, V.; Ciriello, V. Sustainability Analysis of Alternative Long-Term Management Strategies for Water Supply Systems: A Case Study in Reggio Emilia (Italy). Water 2019, 11, 450.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top