Next Article in Journal
The Performance and Microbial Community Identification in Mesophilic and Atmospheric Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Associated with Different Hydraulic Retention Times
Previous Article in Journal
Improving the Performance of Vegetable Leaf Wetness Duration Models in Greenhouses Using Decision Tree Learning
Open AccessArticle

Influence of Landscape Structures on Water Quality at Multiple Temporal and Spatial Scales: A Case Study of Wujiang River Watershed in Guizhou

1
Institute of Karst Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001, China
2
National Engineering and Technological Research Center of Karst Rocky Desertification Prevention and Control, Guiyang 550001, China
3
Department of Water Resources and Environment, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510000, China
4
Guizhou Hydrology and Water Resources Bureau, Guizhou 550001, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(1), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010159
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 25 December 2018 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
  |  
PDF [5134 KB, uploaded 17 January 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

Water quality is highly influenced by the composition and configuration of landscape structure, and regulated by various spatiotemporal factors. Using the Wujiang river watershed as a case study, this research assesses the influence of landscape metrics—including composition and spatial configuration—on river water quality. An understanding of the relationship between landscape metrics and water quality can be used to improve water contamination predictability and provide restoration and management strategies. For this study, eight water quality variables were collected from 32 sampling sites from 2014 through 2017. Water quality variables included nutrient pollutant indicators ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N), nitrogen (NO3), and total phosphate (TP), as well as oxygen-consuming organic matter indicators COD (chemical oxygen demand), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), dissolved oxygen (DO), and potassium permanganate index (CODMn). Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to quantitatively analyze the influence of landscape metrics on water quality at five buffer zone scales (extending 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 km from the sample site) in the Wujiang river watershed. Results revealed that water quality is affected by landscape composition, landscape configuration, and precipitation. During the dry season, landscape metrics at both landscape and class levels predicted organic matter at the five buffer zone scales. During the wet season, only class-level landscape metrics predicted water contaminants, including organic matter and nutrients, at the middle three of five buffer scales. We identified the following important indicators of water quality degradation: percent of landscape, edge density, and aggregation index for built-up land; aggregation index for water; CONTAGION; COHESION; and landscape shape index. These results suggest that pollution can be mitigated by reducing natural landscape composition fragmentation, increasing the connectedness of region rivers, and minimizing human disturbance of landscape structures in the watershed area. View Full-Text
Keywords: landscape metric; water quality; buffer zone; PLSR; Wujiang river watershed landscape metric; water quality; buffer zone; PLSR; Wujiang river watershed
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, G.; Ren, X.; Yang, Z.; Long, H.; Xiao, J. Influence of Landscape Structures on Water Quality at Multiple Temporal and Spatial Scales: A Case Study of Wujiang River Watershed in Guizhou. Water 2019, 11, 159.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top