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Disinfection Methods for Swimming Pool Water: Byproduct Formation and Control

1
Water Treatment and Management Consultancy, 2289 ED Rijswijk, The Netherlands
2
IHE Delft, Institute for Water Education, 2611 AX Delft, The Netherlands
3
Department of Water Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands
4
Strategic Centre, Waternet, 1096 AC Amsterdam, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(6), 797; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060797
Received: 29 April 2018 / Revised: 10 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Aquatic Systems—Quality and Contamination)
This paper presents a comprehensive and critical comparison of 10 disinfection methods of swimming pool water: chlorination, electrochemically generated mixed oxidants (EGMO), ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, UV/chlorine, UV/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), UV/H2O2/chlorine, ozone (O3)/chlorine, O3/H2O2/chlorine, O3/UV and O3/UV/chlorine for the formation, control and elimination of potentially toxic disinfection byproducts (DBPs): trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), trihaloacetaldehydes (THAs) and chloramines (CAMs). The statistical comparison is carried out using data on 32 swimming pools accumulated from the reviewed studies. The results indicate that O3/UV and O3/UV/chlorine are the most promising methods, as the concentration of the studied DBPs (THMs and HANs) with these methods was reduced considerably compared with chlorination, EGMO, UV irradiation, UV/chlorine and O3/chlorine. However, the concentration of the studied DBPs including HAAs and CAMs remained much higher with O3/chlorine compared with the limits set by the WHO for drinking water quality. Moreover, the enhancement in the formation of THMs, HANs and CH with UV/chlorine compared with UV irradiation and the increase in the level of HANs with O3/UV/chlorine compared with O3/UV indicate the complexity of the combined processes, which should be optimized to control the toxicity and improve the quality of swimming pool water. View Full-Text
Keywords: chlorination; disinfection byproducts; electrochemically generated mixed oxidants; hydrogen peroxide; ozone; swimming pool water; ultraviolet irradiation chlorination; disinfection byproducts; electrochemically generated mixed oxidants; hydrogen peroxide; ozone; swimming pool water; ultraviolet irradiation
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Ilyas, H.; Masih, I.; Van der Hoek, J.P. Disinfection Methods for Swimming Pool Water: Byproduct Formation and Control. Water 2018, 10, 797.

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