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Antibiotic Resistance and Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Production of Escherichia coli Isolated from Irrigation Waters in Selected Urban Farms in Metro Manila, Philippines

1
Institute of Biology, College of Science, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines
2
Natural Sciences Research Institute, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(5), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10050548
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 25 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters)
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Abstract

Highly-polluted surface waters are increasingly used for irrigation in different agricultural settings because they have high nutrient content and are readily available. However, studies showed that they are reservoirs for the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the environment. In this study, the resistance of 212 Escherichia coli isolates from irrigation water, soil, and vegetables in selected urban farms in Metro Manila, Philippines was evaluated. Results showed that antibiotic resistance was more prevalent in water (67.3%) compared to soil (56.4%) and vegetable (61.5%) isolates. Resistance to tetracycline was the highest among water (45.6%) and vegetable (42.3%) isolates while ampicillin resistance was the highest among soil isolates (33.3%). Multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates were also observed and they were more prevalent in water (25.3%) compared to soil (2.8%) and vegetable (8.4%) isolates. Interestingly, there are patterns of antibiotic resistance that were common to isolates from different samples. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production (ESBL) was also investigated and genes were observed to be present in 13 isolates. This provides circumstantial evidence that highly-polluted surface waters harbor antibiotic-resistant and MDR E. coli that may be potentially transferred to primary production environments during their application for irrigation purposes. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotic resistance; ESBL; Escherichia coli; irrigation water; gastrointestinal infections antibiotic resistance; ESBL; Escherichia coli; irrigation water; gastrointestinal infections
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Vital, P.G.; Zara, E.S.; Paraoan, C.E.M.; Dimasupil, M.A.Z.; Abello, J.J.M.; Santos, I.T.G.; Rivera, W.L. Antibiotic Resistance and Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Production of Escherichia coli Isolated from Irrigation Waters in Selected Urban Farms in Metro Manila, Philippines. Water 2018, 10, 548.

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