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Water 2018, 10(11), 1615; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111615

The Influence of Hyporheic Exchange on Water Temperatures in a Headwater Stream

Natural Resources Management and Environmental Sciences Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407, USA
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Received: 10 October 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 9 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
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Abstract

A headwater stream in coastal California was used to evaluate the temperature response of effective shade reduction. Spatial distribution of stream water temperatures for summer low-flow conditions (<0.006 m3 s−1) were highly correlated with net radiation and advective heat transfers from hyporheic exchange and subsequent streambed conduction. Using a heat budget model, mean maximum stream water temperatures were predicted to increase by 1.7 to 2.2 °C for 50% and 0% effective shade scenarios, respectively, at the downstream end of a 300 m treatment reach. Effects on mean maximum stream water temperature changes, as water flowed downstream through a 500 m shaded reach below the treatment reach, were reduced by 52 to 30% from the expected maximum temperature increases under the 50% and 0% effective shade scenarios, respectively. Maximum stream water temperature change predicted by net radiation heating alone was greater than measured and heat-budget-estimated temperatures. When the influence of hyporheic water exchange was combined with net radiation predictions, predicted temperatures were similar to measured and heat-budget-predicted temperatures. Results indicate that advective heat transfers associated with hyporheic exchange can promote downstream cooling following stream water temperature increases from shade reduction in a headwater stream with cascade, step-pool, and large woody debris forced-pool morphology. View Full-Text
Keywords: stream water temperature; heat budget; downstream cooling; hyporheic exchange; advective heat transfer stream water temperature; heat budget; downstream cooling; hyporheic exchange; advective heat transfer
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Surfleet, C.; Louen, J. The Influence of Hyporheic Exchange on Water Temperatures in a Headwater Stream. Water 2018, 10, 1615.

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