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Open AccessArticle

The Impact of Tipuana tipu Species on Local Human Thermal Comfort Thresholds in Different Urban Canyon Cases in Mediterranean Climates: Lisbon, Portugal

1
University of Lisbon, Faculty of Architecture, CIAUD—Research Centre for Architecture, Urbanism and Design, Rua Sá Nogueira, Pólo Universitário do Alto da Ajuda, Lisbon 1349-063, Portugal
2
Research Center Human Biometeorology, German Meteorological Service, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany
3
Research Center Human Biometeorology, German Meteorological Service, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany
4
Environmental Meteorology, Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources, Albert-Ludwigs-University, D-79085 Freiburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2018, 9(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9010012
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 4 January 2018 / Published: 7 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Design and City Microclimates)
Based upon the case of Lisbon, this article examined the in-situ effects of vegetation upon pedestrian thermal comfort levels. Focussing specifically upon the historic quarter that often witnesses the highest Tamb values and Urban Heat Island (UHI) intensities during the summer, the most common urban canyon cases (UCCs) were modelled, along with one of the most commonly used vegetative semi-deciduous species found in the city, Tipuana tipu. Based upon a reference point (RP) system, the assessments were undertaken through the use of a new version of the SkyHelios model, local obtained Grad values, and the modified physiologically equivalent temperature (mPET) index calculated through the human-biometeorological model RayMan. The study identified the in-situ thermo-physiological influences of Tipuana tipu during different periods of the year: (1) during the summer, which revealed considerable reductions of PET/mPET of up to 15.6 °C/11.6 °C during a very hot day (where daily maximum Tamb surpassed 35 °C); and (2) during the winter, which revealed the risks of oversharing as a result of the species keeping its foliage during the winter with reductions of PET/mPET of up to 2.7 °C/2.6 °C. Furthermore, the study utilised the climate tourism/transfer information scheme (CTIS) to categorise and facilitate the interpretation of the results. View Full-Text
Keywords: public space design; physiologically equivalent temperature; urban canyon cases; thermal comfort; Mediterranean climate; Tipuana tipu public space design; physiologically equivalent temperature; urban canyon cases; thermal comfort; Mediterranean climate; Tipuana tipu
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MDPI and ACS Style

Santos Nouri, A.; Fröhlich, D.; Matos Silva, M.; Matzarakis, A. The Impact of Tipuana tipu Species on Local Human Thermal Comfort Thresholds in Different Urban Canyon Cases in Mediterranean Climates: Lisbon, Portugal. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 12.

AMA Style

Santos Nouri A, Fröhlich D, Matos Silva M, Matzarakis A. The Impact of Tipuana tipu Species on Local Human Thermal Comfort Thresholds in Different Urban Canyon Cases in Mediterranean Climates: Lisbon, Portugal. Atmosphere. 2018; 9(1):12.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Santos Nouri, Andre; Fröhlich, Dominik; Matos Silva, Maria; Matzarakis, Andreas. 2018. "The Impact of Tipuana tipu Species on Local Human Thermal Comfort Thresholds in Different Urban Canyon Cases in Mediterranean Climates: Lisbon, Portugal" Atmosphere 9, no. 1: 12.

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