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Open AccessArticle

Indoor Particle Concentrations, Size Distributions, and Exposures in Middle Eastern Microenvironments

1
Department of Physics, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan
2
Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research (INAR), University of Helsinki, PL 64, FI-00014 UHEL, Helsinki, Finland
3
Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean (EMRO), Centre for Environmental Health Action (CEHA), World Health Organization (WHO), Amman 11181, Jordan
4
Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
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Ray W. Herrick Laboratories, Center for High Performance Buildings, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
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Department of Design Sciences, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden
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Validation and Calibration Department, Savypharma, Amman 11140, Jordan
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Department of Chemistry, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11010041
Received: 11 November 2019 / Revised: 19 December 2019 / Accepted: 25 December 2019 / Published: 28 December 2019
There is limited research on indoor air quality in the Middle East. In this study, concentrations and size distributions of indoor particles were measured in eight Jordanian dwellings during the winter and summer. Supplemental measurements of selected gaseous pollutants were also conducted. Indoor cooking, heating via the combustion of natural gas and kerosene, and tobacco/shisha smoking were associated with significant increases in the concentrations of ultrafine, fine, and coarse particles. Particle number (PN) and particle mass (PM) size distributions varied with the different indoor emission sources and among the eight dwellings. Natural gas cooking and natural gas or kerosene heaters were associated with PN concentrations on the order of 100,000 to 400,000 cm−3 and PM2.5 concentrations often in the range of 10 to 150 µg/m3. Tobacco and shisha (waterpipe or hookah) smoking, the latter of which is common in Jordan, were found to be strong emitters of indoor ultrafine and fine particles in the dwellings. Non-combustion cooking activities emitted comparably less PN and PM2.5. Indoor cooking and combustion processes were also found to increase concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and volatile organic compounds. In general, concentrations of indoor particles were lower during the summer compared to the winter. In the absence of indoor activities, indoor PN and PM2.5 concentrations were generally below 10,000 cm−3 and 30 µg/m3, respectively. Collectively, the results suggest that Jordanian indoor environments can be heavily polluted when compared to the surrounding outdoor atmosphere primarily due to the ubiquity of indoor combustion associated with cooking, heating, and smoking. View Full-Text
Keywords: indoor air quality; aerosols; particle size distributions; ultrafine particles; particulate matter (PM); smoking; combustion indoor air quality; aerosols; particle size distributions; ultrafine particles; particulate matter (PM); smoking; combustion
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Hussein, T.; Alameer, A.; Jaghbeir, O.; Albeitshaweesh, K.; Malkawi, M.; Boor, B.E.; Koivisto, A.J.; Löndahl, J.; Alrifai, O.; Al-Hunaiti, A. Indoor Particle Concentrations, Size Distributions, and Exposures in Middle Eastern Microenvironments. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 41.

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