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Tropical Atlantic Variability: Observations and Modeling
Open AccessArticle

Analyzing the Influence of the North Atlantic Ocean Variability on the Atlantic Meridional Mode on Decadal Time Scales

1
Earth System Science Center-CCST, National Institute for Space Research (INPE), 12227-010 São José dos Campos, Brazil
2
Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies-CPTEC, National Institute for Space Research (INPE), 12227-010 São José dos Campos, Brazil
3
Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies-CPTEC, National Institute for Space Research (INPE), 12630-000 Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil
4
Institute for Advanced Studies (IEA), University of São Paulo (USP), 05508-050 São Paulo, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11010003
Received: 16 August 2019 / Revised: 30 September 2019 / Accepted: 2 October 2019 / Published: 18 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tropical Atlantic Variability)
Important features of the Atlantic meridional mode (AMM) are not fully understood. We still do not know what determines its dominant decadal variability or the complex physical processes that sustain it. Using reanalysis datasets, we investigated the influence of the North Atlantic Ocean variability on the dominant decadal periodicity that characterizes the AMM. Statistical analyses demonstrated that the correlation between the sea surface temperature decadal variability in the Atlantic Ocean and the AMM time series characterizes the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). This corroborates previous studies that demonstrated that the AMO precedes the AMM. A causal inference with a newly developed rigorous and quantitative causality analysis indicates that the AMO causes the AMM. To further understand the influence of the subsurface ocean on the AMM, the relationship between the ocean heat content (0–300 m) decadal variability and AMM was analyzed. The results show that although there is a significant zero-lag correlation between the ocean heat content in some regions of the North Atlantic (south of Greenland and in the eastern part of the North Atlantic) and the AMM, their cause-effect relationship on decadal time scales is unlikely. By correlating the AMO with the ocean heat content (0–300 m) decadal variability, the former precedes the latter; however, the causality analysis shows that the ocean heat content variability drives the AMO, corroborating several studies that point out the dominant role of the ocean heat transport convergence on AMO. View Full-Text
Keywords: Atlantic Meridional Mode; Atlantic Ocean variability; ocean-atmosphere interaction; decadal variability Atlantic Meridional Mode; Atlantic Ocean variability; ocean-atmosphere interaction; decadal variability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Veiga, S.F.; Giarolla, E.; Nobre, P.; Nobre, C.A. Analyzing the Influence of the North Atlantic Ocean Variability on the Atlantic Meridional Mode on Decadal Time Scales. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11010003

AMA Style

Veiga SF, Giarolla E, Nobre P, Nobre CA. Analyzing the Influence of the North Atlantic Ocean Variability on the Atlantic Meridional Mode on Decadal Time Scales. Atmosphere. 2020; 11(1):3. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11010003

Chicago/Turabian Style

Veiga, Sandro F.; Giarolla, Emanuel; Nobre, Paulo; Nobre, Carlos A. 2020. "Analyzing the Influence of the North Atlantic Ocean Variability on the Atlantic Meridional Mode on Decadal Time Scales" Atmosphere 11, no. 1: 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11010003

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