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Open AccessArticle

Characterization and Risk Assessment of Particulate Matter and Volatile Organic Compounds in Metro Carriage in Shanghai, China

by Yu Gong 1,2, Tao Zhou 1, Youcai Zhao 1 and Bin Xu 1,3,*
State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
Sustainable Resource Management, Grenfell Campus, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 20 University Drive, Corner Brook, NL A2H 5G4, Canada
Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai 200092, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(6), 302;
Received: 2 April 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 27 May 2019 / Published: 1 June 2019
Air quality in transportation microenvironment has received widespread attention. In this study, the exposure levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter that have a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) in Shanghai metro system were measured simultaneously, and their risks to human health under different driving conditions were then assessed. The results showed that VOCs, PM2.5 concentrations and life cancer risk (LCR) of four VOCs (benzene, formaldehyde, ethylbenzene, and acetaldehyde) in the old metro carriages were about 3 times, 3 times and 2 times higher than those in the new metro carriages, respectively. This difference can be ascribed to the fact that air filtration system in the new metro trains is significantly improved. The VOC levels, PM2.5 concentrations and LCR of VOCs on the above-ground track were slightly higher than those on the underground track. This is due to less outdoor polluted air entering into the carriage on the underground track. Number of passengers also had an effect on VOCs and PM2.5 concentrations in metro carriages. Additionally, the LCR of VOCs inside metro trains should not be ignored (7.69 × 10−6~1.47 × 10−5), especially inside old metro trains with the old ventilation system. View Full-Text
Keywords: VOCs; PM2.5; health risk assessment; metro carriage VOCs; PM2.5; health risk assessment; metro carriage
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Gong, Y.; Zhou, T.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, B. Characterization and Risk Assessment of Particulate Matter and Volatile Organic Compounds in Metro Carriage in Shanghai, China. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 302.

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