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Open AccessArticle

Sources and Temporal Variations of Coarse Particulate Matter (PM) in Central Tehran, Iran

1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA
2
Center for Air Pollution Research (CAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1416753955, Iran
3
Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1416753955, Iran
4
Department of Research Methodology and Data Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1416753955, Iran
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(5), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10050291
Received: 2 May 2019 / Revised: 19 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 25 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Air Quality)
In this study, we used the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model to evaluate the sources of ambient coarse particulate matter (PM) and their temporal variations in two sampling sites, i.e., a school dormitory and a retirement home, located in central Tehran. 24-h ambient PM samples were collected using low-volume air samplers from May 2012 to June 2013. The collected filters were analyzed for their chemical components, including water-soluble ions, metals, and trace elements, which were used as the input to the PMF model. Our results indicated annual averages of 45.7 ± 3.8 µg/m3 and 36.2. ± 4.0 µg/m3 for coarse PM at the School dormitory and Tohid retirement home, respectively. Moreover, higher ambient coarse PM mass concentrations were observed in the warm season (53.3 ± 5.8 µg/m3 for school dormitory and 43.1 ± 6.1 µg/m3 for Tohid retirement home) as opposed to the cold season (41.4 ± 4.7 µg/m3 for school dormitory and 28.7 ± 4.6 µg/m3 for Tohid retirement home). Our PMF analysis also identified road dust, soil, and industry, and atmospherically processed coarse PM as the three sources of ambient coarse PM in central Tehran. Road dust, soil, and industry were the major sources of ambient coarse PM, contributing respectively to 74 ± 9% and 19 ± 2% of the total coarse PM mass concentration, while atmospherically aged aerosols had a rather minimal contribution of 7 ± 1% to total coarse PM mass concentration. The temporal trends of the resolved factors also revealed higher contributions of road dust to total ambient coarse PM during warm season as opposed to cold season, due to the increased resuspension rate from road surfaces as a result of higher wind speeds, and temperatures, combined with lower relative humidity. Similarly, higher resuspension rate of mechanically originated particulates resulted in higher warm-season time contributions of the soil factor. Results of this study clearly revealed the key role of road dust and non-tail pipe emissions on ambient coarse PM mass concentrations in crowded areas of central Tehran, and have important implications on the potential health impacts that can be caused by these difficult to mitigate sources of coarse PM. View Full-Text
Keywords: Tehran; coarse PM; source apportionment; PMF; receptor model Tehran; coarse PM; source apportionment; PMF; receptor model
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Soleimanian, E.; Taghvaee, S.; Mousavi, A.; Sowlat, M.H.; Hassanvand, M.S.; Yunesian, M.; Naddafi, K.; Sioutas, C. Sources and Temporal Variations of Coarse Particulate Matter (PM) in Central Tehran, Iran. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 291.

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