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Evolutionary and Medical Consequences of Archaic Introgression into Modern Human Genomes

by Olga Dolgova * and Oscar Lao *
Population Genomics Group, Centre Nacional d’Anàlisi Genòmica, Centre de Regulació Genòmica (CRG-CNAG), Parc Científic de Barcelona, Baldiri Reixac 4, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2018, 9(7), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9070358
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 7 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolutionary Medicine)
The demographic history of anatomically modern humans (AMH) involves multiple migration events, population extinctions and genetic adaptations. As genome-wide data from complete genome sequencing becomes increasingly abundant and available even from extinct hominins, new insights of the evolutionary history of our species are discovered. It is currently known that AMH interbred with archaic hominins once they left the African continent. Modern non-African human genomes carry fragments of archaic origin. This review focuses on the fitness consequences of archaic interbreeding in current human populations. We discuss new insights and challenges that researchers face when interpreting the potential impact of introgression on fitness and testing hypotheses about the role of selection within the context of health and disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: archaic introgression; fitness; natural selection; Neanderthal; Denisovan; anatomically modern humans archaic introgression; fitness; natural selection; Neanderthal; Denisovan; anatomically modern humans
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Dolgova, O.; Lao, O. Evolutionary and Medical Consequences of Archaic Introgression into Modern Human Genomes. Genes 2018, 9, 358.

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