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Open AccessArticle

Phenotypic Variability and Genetic Diversity in a Pinus koraiensis Clonal Trial in Northeastern China

1
State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China
2
Department of Natural Resources Management, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Kinshasa, P.O. Box 117, Kinshasa XI 023, Congo
3
Department of Forestry, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Semuliki Official University, Beni 48, Congo
4
Forest Cultivation Center, Linjiang Forestry Bureau of Jilin, Linjiang 134600, China
5
Canada Research Chair in Forest and Environmental Genomics, Centre for Forest Research and Institute for Integrative Biology and Systems, Université Laval, Quebec, QC GiV 0A6, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2020, 11(6), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11060673
Received: 14 April 2020 / Revised: 10 June 2020 / Accepted: 15 June 2020 / Published: 19 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tree Genetics and Improvement)
Combining phenotypic and genetic characteristics in a genetic variation study is of paramount importance to effectively orient the selection of producers’ elite trees in a seed orchard. In total, 28 phenotypic characteristics and 16 microsatellite loci were used to analyze the clonal genetic variation, to characterize the genetic diversity, and to refine the genetic classifications of 110 Pinus koraiensis clones grown in the Naozhi orchard in northeastern China. All clones were significantly different in most traits. Most of the phenotypic characteristics showed great genetic variation among clones, while the genotypic differentiation was weak between the selection sites of clones. The SSR markers showed a relatively high level of genetic diversity (Na = 4.67 ± 0.43, Ne = 2.916 ± 0.18, I = 1.15 ± 0.07, Ho = 0.69 ± 0.04, He = 0.62 ± 0.02, and mean polymorphic information content (PIC) of 0.574), with higher heterozygosity as an indication of a lower probability of inbreeding events in the orchard. Despite weak correlation coefficients between dissimilarity matrices (r(A/B), range equal to 0.022, p-value < 0.001), the genetic and phenotypic classifications congruently subdivided all the clones into three major groups. The patterns of phenotypic trait variations and genetic diversity are valuable to effectively select materials in breeding programs of P. koraiensis. View Full-Text
Keywords: clone classification; genetic diversity; Pinus koraiensis; phenotypic variation; microsatellite markers clone classification; genetic diversity; Pinus koraiensis; phenotypic variation; microsatellite markers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kaviriri, D.K.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Jiang, L.; Zhang, J.; Wang, J.; Khasa, D.P.; You, X.; Zhao, X. Phenotypic Variability and Genetic Diversity in a Pinus koraiensis Clonal Trial in Northeastern China. Genes 2020, 11, 673.

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