Next Article in Journal
Weighted Single-Step Genome-Wide Association Study for Growth Traits in Chinese Simmental Beef Cattle
Previous Article in Journal
Metabolome and Transcriptome Analysis of Hexaploid Solidago canadensis Roots Reveals its Invasive Capacity Related to Polyploidy
Previous Article in Special Issue
Ovarian Transcriptomic Analyses in the Urban Human Health Pest, the Western Black Widow Spider
Open AccessArticle

Spatiotemporal Differentiation of Alpine Butterfly Parnassius glacialis (Papilionidae: Parnassiinae) in China: Evidence from Mitochondrial DNA and Nuclear Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

1
College of Life Sciences, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000, China
2
College of Life Sciences, Hefei Normal University, Hefei 230000, China
3
SKLPS and Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
4
College of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2020, 11(2), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes11020188
Received: 17 December 2019 / Revised: 5 February 2020 / Accepted: 6 February 2020 / Published: 11 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Genetics and Genomics)
The Apollo butterfly, Parnassius glacialis, is one of the most charming members of its genus and includes two subspecies locally distributed in montane areas of south-central China and Japan. In this study, we investigated the genetic structure and demographic history of P. glacialis by analyzing partial sequences of four mitochondrial genes and nuclear single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) via genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) of samples from nearly the entire known distributional range in China. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data demonstrated that a total of 39 haplotypes were present, and the species was estimated to have diverged about 0.95 million years ago during the middle Pleistocene transition into two main clades that likely formed during the Kunlun-Huanghe tectonic movement. The two clades then dispersed independently in distinct geographic areas alongside the mountainous routes in central and southern China, most likely driven by the Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles. Nuclear SNP analysis was generally congruent with mtDNA results at the individual level. A minor incongruence of genetic structures that was detected between mtDNA and nuclear SNP data from the Laojunshan and Tiantangzhai populations was likely due to secondary contact and male-biased dispersal. Our work demonstrates that complicated dispersal-vicariance evolutionary processes likely led to the current geographic distribution of P. glacialis in China, particularly the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and related climatic oscillations during the Quaternary period.
Keywords: Parnassius; Parnassius glacialis; phylogeny; phylogeography; divergence time estimation; quaternary climatic oscillations Parnassius; Parnassius glacialis; phylogeny; phylogeography; divergence time estimation; quaternary climatic oscillations
MDPI and ACS Style

Tao, R.; Xu, C.; Wang, Y.; Sun, X.; Li, C.; Ma, J.; Hao, J.; Yang, Q. Spatiotemporal Differentiation of Alpine Butterfly Parnassius glacialis (Papilionidae: Parnassiinae) in China: Evidence from Mitochondrial DNA and Nuclear Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms. Genes 2020, 11, 188.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop