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Open AccessArticle

Fluorescent Light Incites a Conserved Immune and Inflammatory Genetic Response within Vertebrate Organs (Danio rerio, Oryzias latipes and Mus musculus)

1
The Xiphophorus Genetic Stock Center, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666, USA
2
Department of Cellular Systems and Anatomy, The University of Texas Health San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2019, 10(4), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10040271
Received: 8 March 2019 / Revised: 27 March 2019 / Accepted: 29 March 2019 / Published: 3 April 2019
Fluorescent light (FL) has been utilized for ≈60 years and has become a common artificial light source under which animals, including humans, spend increasing amounts of time. Although the solar spectrum is quite dissimilar in both wavelengths and intensities, the genetic consequences of FL exposure have not been investigated. Herein, we present comparative RNA-Seq results that establish expression patterns within skin, brain, and liver for Danio rerio, Oryzias latipes, and the hairless mouse (Mus musculus) after exposure to FL. These animals represent diurnal and nocturnal lifestyles, and ≈450 million years of evolutionary divergence. In all three organisms, FL induced transcriptional changes of the acute phase response signaling pathway and modulated inflammation and innate immune responses. Our pathway and gene clustering analyses suggest cellular perception of oxidative stress is promoting induction of primary up-stream regulators IL1B and TNF. The skin and brain of the three animals as well as the liver of both fish models all exhibit increased inflammation and immune responses; however, the mouse liver suppressed the same pathways. Overall, the conserved nature of the genetic responses observed after FL exposure, among fishes and a mammal, suggest the presence of light responsive genetic circuitry deeply embedded in the vertebrate genome. View Full-Text
Keywords: gene expression; RNA-Seq; fluorescent light; acute phase; oxidative stress gene expression; RNA-Seq; fluorescent light; acute phase; oxidative stress
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Boswell, M.; Lu, Y.; Boswell, W.; Savage, M.; Hildreth, K.; Salinas, R.; Walter, C.A.; Walter, R.B. Fluorescent Light Incites a Conserved Immune and Inflammatory Genetic Response within Vertebrate Organs (Danio rerio, Oryzias latipes and Mus musculus). Genes 2019, 10, 271.

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