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Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived Extracellular Vesicles for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Applications
Open AccessReview

Sorting Mechanisms for MicroRNAs into Extracellular Vesicles and Their Associated Diseases

by Michael Groot 1 and Heedoo Lee 2,*
Department of Medicine, Boston University Medical Campus, Boston, MA 02118, USA
Department of Biology and Chemistry, Changwon National University, Changwon 51140, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2020, 9(4), 1044;
Received: 7 April 2020 / Revised: 18 April 2020 / Accepted: 21 April 2020 / Published: 22 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Therapeutic Applications of Extracellular Vesicles)
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are secretory membranous elements used by cells to transport proteins, lipids, mRNAs, and microRNAs (miRNAs). While their existence has been known for many years, only recently has research begun to identify their function in intercellular communication and gene regulation. Importantly, cells have the ability to selectively sort miRNA into EVs for secretion to nearby or distant targets. These mechanisms broadly include RNA-binding proteins such as hnRNPA2B1 and Argonaute-2, but also membranous proteins involved in EV biogenesis such as Caveolin-1 and Neural Sphingomyelinase 2. Moreover, certain disease states have also identified dysregulated EV-miRNA content, shedding light on the potential role of selective sorting in pathogenesis. These pathologies include chronic lung disease, immune response, neuroinflammation, diabetes mellitus, cancer, and heart disease. In this review, we will overview the mechanisms whereby cells selectively sort miRNA into EVs and also outline disease states where EV-miRNAs become dysregulated. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicle; exosome; microvesicle; microRNA; RNA-binding protein extracellular vesicle; exosome; microvesicle; microRNA; RNA-binding protein
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Groot, M.; Lee, H. Sorting Mechanisms for MicroRNAs into Extracellular Vesicles and Their Associated Diseases. Cells 2020, 9, 1044.

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