Next Article in Journal
Regulation of the Extracellular Matrix by Ciliary Machinery
Next Article in Special Issue
Defocused Images Change Multineuronal Firing Patterns in the Mouse Retina
Previous Article in Journal
miRNAs as Biomarkers in Disease: Latest Findings Regarding Their Role in Diagnosis and Prognosis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Species Differences in the Nutrition of Retinal Ganglion Cells among Mammals Frequently Used as Animal Models
Open AccessArticle

Norrin Protects Retinal Ganglion Cells from Excitotoxic Damage via the Induction of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor

1
Laboratory for Cell and Molecular Biology, Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital, LMU Munich, 80336 Munich, Germany
2
Institute of Human Anatomy and Embryology, University of Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
3
Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Cells 2020, 9(2), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020277
Received: 25 December 2019 / Revised: 17 January 2020 / Accepted: 22 January 2020 / Published: 23 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Biology of Retinal Ganglion Cells)
Purpose: To investigate whether and how leukemia inhibitory factor (Lif) is involved in mediating the neuroprotective effects of Norrin on retinal ganglion cells (RGC) following excitotoxic damage. Norrin is a secreted protein that protects RGC from N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated excitotoxic damage, which is accompanied by increased expression of protective factors such as Lif, Edn2 and Fgf2. Methods: Lif-deficient mice were injected with NMDA in one eye and NMDA plus Norrin into the other eye. RGC damage was investigated and quantified by TUNEL labeling 24 h after injection. Retinal mRNA expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction following retinal treatment. Results: After intravitreal injection of NMDA and Norrin in wild-type mice approximately 50% less TUNEL positive cells were observed in the RGC layer when compared to NMDA-treated littermates, an effect which was lost in Lif-deficient mice. The mRNA expression for Gfap, a marker for Müller cell gliosis, as well as Edn2 and Fgf2 was induced in wild-type mice following NMDA/Norrin treatment but substantially blocked in Lif-deficient mice. Conclusions: Norrin mediates its protective properties on RGC via Lif, which is required to enhance Müller cell gliosis and to induce protective factors such as Edn2 or Fgf2. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lif; retinal ganglion cells; neuroprotection; excitotoxic damage; NMDA; apoptosis; Norrin; Wnt/β-catenin signaling Lif; retinal ganglion cells; neuroprotection; excitotoxic damage; NMDA; apoptosis; Norrin; Wnt/β-catenin signaling
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kassumeh, S.; Leopold, S.; Fuchshofer, R.; Thomas, C.N.; Priglinger, S.G.; Tamm, E.R.; Ohlmann, A. Norrin Protects Retinal Ganglion Cells from Excitotoxic Damage via the Induction of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor. Cells 2020, 9, 277. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020277

AMA Style

Kassumeh S, Leopold S, Fuchshofer R, Thomas CN, Priglinger SG, Tamm ER, Ohlmann A. Norrin Protects Retinal Ganglion Cells from Excitotoxic Damage via the Induction of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor. Cells. 2020; 9(2):277. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020277

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kassumeh, Stefan; Leopold, Stephanie; Fuchshofer, Rudolf; Thomas, Carina N.; Priglinger, Siegfried G.; Tamm, Ernst R.; Ohlmann, Andreas. 2020. "Norrin Protects Retinal Ganglion Cells from Excitotoxic Damage via the Induction of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor" Cells 9, no. 2: 277. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9020277

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop