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Open AccessReview

Novel PET Biomarkers to Disentangle Molecular Pathways across Age-Related Neurodegenerative Diseases

1
Neurodegeneration Imaging Group, University of Exeter Medical School, London W12 0BZ, UK
2
Invicro, Centre for Imaging Sciences, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0NN, UK
3
Department of Neuroimaging, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King’s College London, London SE5 8AF, UK
4
School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK
5
Public Health Directorate, Imperial College NHS Healthcare Trust, London W6 8RF, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2020, 9(12), 2581; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9122581
Received: 28 October 2020 / Revised: 25 November 2020 / Accepted: 28 November 2020 / Published: 2 December 2020
There is a need to disentangle the etiological puzzle of age-related neurodegenerative diseases, whose clinical phenotypes arise from known, and as yet unknown, pathways that can act distinctly or in concert. Enhanced sub-phenotyping and the identification of in vivo biomarker-driven signature profiles could improve the stratification of patients into clinical trials and, potentially, help to drive the treatment landscape towards the precision medicine paradigm. The rapidly growing field of neuroimaging offers valuable tools to investigate disease pathophysiology and molecular pathways in humans, with the potential to capture the whole disease course starting from preclinical stages. Positron emission tomography (PET) combines the advantages of a versatile imaging technique with the ability to quantify, to nanomolar sensitivity, molecular targets in vivo. This review will discuss current research and available imaging biomarkers evaluating dysregulation of the main molecular pathways across age-related neurodegenerative diseases. The molecular pathways focused on in this review involve mitochondrial dysfunction and energy dysregulation; neuroinflammation; protein misfolding; aggregation and the concepts of pathobiology, synaptic dysfunction, neurotransmitter dysregulation and dysfunction of the glymphatic system. The use of PET imaging to dissect these molecular pathways and the potential to aid sub-phenotyping will be discussed, with a focus on novel PET biomarkers. View Full-Text
Keywords: positron emission tomography; biomarkers; neurodegeneration; precision medicine positron emission tomography; biomarkers; neurodegeneration; precision medicine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wilson, H.; Politis, M.; Rabiner, E.A.; Middleton, L.T. Novel PET Biomarkers to Disentangle Molecular Pathways across Age-Related Neurodegenerative Diseases. Cells 2020, 9, 2581. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9122581

AMA Style

Wilson H, Politis M, Rabiner EA, Middleton LT. Novel PET Biomarkers to Disentangle Molecular Pathways across Age-Related Neurodegenerative Diseases. Cells. 2020; 9(12):2581. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9122581

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wilson, Heather; Politis, Marios; Rabiner, Eugenii A.; Middleton, Lefkos T. 2020. "Novel PET Biomarkers to Disentangle Molecular Pathways across Age-Related Neurodegenerative Diseases" Cells 9, no. 12: 2581. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9122581

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