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Synergistic Effect of Mitochondrial and Lysosomal Dysfunction in Parkinson’s Disease

1
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies (DiSTeBA), University of Salento, Via Provinciale Lecce-Monteroni 165, 73100 Lecce, Italy
2
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences (DIMEC), Medical Genetics Unit, University of Bologna, via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna, Italy
3
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Foggia, 71122 Foggia, Italy
4
Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sensory Organs, University of Bari "A. Moro", 70122 Bari, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(5), 452; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050452
Received: 23 March 2019 / Revised: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Molecular and Cellular Basis for Parkinson's Disease 2019)
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Abstract

Crosstalk between lysosomes and mitochondria plays a central role in Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Lysosomal function may be influenced by mitochondrial quality control, dynamics and/or respiration, but whether dysfunction of endocytic or autophagic pathway is associated with mitochondrial impairment determining accumulation of defective mitochondria, is not yet understood. Here, we performed live imaging, western blotting analysis, sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity assay on primary fibroblasts from a young patient affected by PD, her mother and a healthy control to analyze the occurrence of mtDNA mutations, lysosomal abundance, acidification and function, mitochondrial biogenesis activation and senescence. We showed synergistic alterations in lysosomal functions and mitochondrial biogenesis, likely associated with a mitochondrial genetic defect, with a consequent block of mitochondrial turnover and occurrence of premature cellular senescence in PARK2-PD fibroblasts, suggesting that these alterations represent potential mechanisms contributing to the loss of dopaminergic neurons.
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; lysosome; autophagy; endocytosis; mitochondria Parkinson’s disease; lysosome; autophagy; endocytosis; mitochondria
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Guerra, F.; Girolimetti, G.; Beli, R.; Mitruccio, M.; Pacelli, C.; Ferretta, A.; Gasparre, G.; Cocco, T.; Bucci, C. Synergistic Effect of Mitochondrial and Lysosomal Dysfunction in Parkinson’s Disease. Cells 2019, 8, 452.

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