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Genetic Studies of Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Focusing on Asian Patients

1
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Chuncheon 24289, Korea
2
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, 73, Inchon-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(5), 404; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8050404
Received: 24 March 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 26 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
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PDF [375 KB, uploaded 20 May 2019]

Abstract

The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not well-understood; however, increased and persistent intestinal inflammation, due to inappropriate immune responses that are caused by interactions between genetic factors, gut microbiota, and environmental factors, are thought to lead to IBD. Various studies have identified more than 240 genetic variants related to IBD. These genetic variants are involved in innate and adaptive immunity, autophagy, defective bacterial handing, interleukin-23 and 10 signaling, and so on. According to several epidemiological and clinical studies, the phenotypes and clinical course of IBD differ between Asians and Europeans. Although the risk loci for IBD typically overlap between Asians and Westerners, genetic heterogeneity has been detected in many loci/genes, such as NOD2/CARD15, TNFSF15 and human leukocyte antigen, contributing to the risk of IBD. Thus, although common pathways exist between Westerners and Asians in the development of IBD, their significance may differ for individual pathways. Although genetic studies are not universally applicable in the clinical field, they may be useful for diagnosing and categorizing IBD, predicting therapeutic responses and toxicity to drugs, and assessing prognosis by risk modeling, thereby enabling precision medicine for individual patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: genetics; inflammatory bowel disease; Crohn’s disease; ulcerative colitis genetics; inflammatory bowel disease; Crohn’s disease; ulcerative colitis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Park, S.C.; Jeen, Y.T. Genetic Studies of Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Focusing on Asian Patients. Cells 2019, 8, 404.

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